Gregorius Vatis Advena
2019 I


Ars et Industria Culturalis: Adorno abusum ac monopolium artium cultusque ab industria culturali reprobavit. Nonne sunt arti prospectus in interretis aetate? © Pictura: Vilma Machado, LFA.



INDEX



Ars et Industria Culturalis: Prospectus in Interretis Aetate

Ars est fragilis quod aut suus ipsius sensus est aut finis est hodiernus mercatus. Primo casu, quoniam authentica est pretium libertatis magnum solvit. Vatis Advena




Why Reform is Impossible: Opponents of a Spelling Reform

The problems with our current system are well known: People have been protesting for centuries. What is wrong with the idea of switching to something better? Justin B. Rye




De Usu Virgulae: Orthographia Latina

Antiqui non utebantur nostro systemate punctionis orthographicae. Cum enim de signorum recto usu disputatur, vanum est classicos quaerere. Eustácio de Sales




Das Unternehmen als Kulturträger: Holistische Betriebswirtschaft

Dass unternehmen ganz losgelöst von politischen realitäten existieren können ist eine illusion und bestenfalls eine heilsgeschichtliche utopie des liberalismus. Georg Solz




Bibliotheca Carolingia: Capitulare de Villis

Volumus ut villae nostrae, quas ad opus nostrum serviendi institutas habemus, sub integritate partibus nostris deserviant et non aliis hominibus. Carolus Magnus




Æsthetics of Reading Pages: Enhancing Online Reading

A reading page is a web-page designed to provide an enhanced reading experience. Its impact will depend on how it deals with a few material obstacles. Gregory Name




The Carolingian 2018: Essays and Debates Still Available

Have you missed the contributions from last year? This is a good chance to see them in the old lay-out. Check them soon while still available. The Carolingian









© The Carolingian 2019, culture, arts, aesthetics.
Flat 7, 18 High Street, Petersfield, GU32 3JL, United Kingdom
carolingian[at]use.startmail.com






Folium II





Ars et Industria Culturalis

THEORIA ET PROSPECTUS ARTIS
IN INTERRETIS AETATE

Vatis Advena




Ars est fragilis quod (1) aut suus ipsius sensus est (2) aut finis est hodiernus mercatus. Primo casu, quoniam authentica est pretium libertatis magnum solvit. Secundo autem, quia res mercatoria fit libertatem amittit. Conceptus artis tamquam suus ipsius finis praesumit artificis libertatem, absolutionem suam societatis, dum autem opus creandum simul societati creatur. Opus quidem, etsi gravem fortasse societatis repudiationem exprimit, dialogum cum civitate vel difficile manifestat. Problema oritur cum societas imperii atque auctoritatis machinationes perpetuat, quibus tantum ars adulatoria prosperat eiusque opus mercatorium quod nihil cogitat et tantum dominorum negotiis favet. Industria culturalis facta est, ut recte dixit Adorno,1 qua merces delectaturae tremenda quantitate atque uniformitate conficiuntur et ad vulgus veneunt ut vera “populi” ars ac cultus. Non sunt. Authenticum est spontaneum. Quod industrali amplitudine ac pertechnica uniformitate producitur non est artis sed industriae. Attamen: Industriam hic dicimus non classico sensu sed moderno, qui valet copiam technicarum fabricarum ad quam plurimas merces pro lucri maximificatione conficiendas, e.g. industriam bellicam, automobilisticam – et culturalem.



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1. “Alle Massenkultur unterm Monopol ist identisch, und ihr Skelett, das von jenem fabrizierte begriffliche Gerippe, beginnt sich abzuzeichnen.” Adorno, Theodor et Max Horkheimer: Dialektik der Aufklärung. Philosophische Fragmente, 21ma edit., Francofurtum ad Moenum: S. Fischer 1969, pp.128s.


Ars vera si laborem praecipuum denotat industriosa vocatur, non industrialis. Cum tamen nomen cultus tantum productionem valet uniformem ac repetitionem earundem rerum, industrialem vocaris neque industriosam. Sic industria culturalis ut subversio verae artis sub popularis cultus simulatione non artem, turbae fraudem prae se gerit. Quae fraus machinam industrialem nutrit et monstrum facit sensum omnis individui aestheticum subiugans libertatemque subvertens. Quod nil popularis est in tali cultu colligitur ex eo quod spontaneitas deest – non oritur libere ex sinu populi quasi vere substantiam aestheticam exprimeret, immo impetratur ad populum ab industriae dominis lucri cupidis, quibus verus artifex cum liber sit inimicus est. Deletur vero non armorum sed fraudis vi, quae violentia industrialis opus authenticum ac necessario fragile a sociali animadversione excludit. Nulla ars vera est ut popularis sit, immo nulla est popularis. Substantia omnis artis exprimit cuiusdam individui substantiam, sed quamvis opus nonnullos capiat non capit “populum” ut turbae totalitatem, quod populus tamquam una aesthetica entitas non exstat. Alii homines quaedam, alii alia opera diligunt, at industria culturalis cupit populum aestheticam unitatem facere, ut unus unam mercium copiam consumat sub artis simulatione. Quae reificatio populi aesthetica se fatalissimam omnium fraudem civilizationis et alienationem ostendit in qua civilizatio ipsa a totalitarismo evertitur. Nam primus gradus ad civitatem subiugandam est cultum mercem uniformem reddere, ut omnes eadem consumant, idem diligant, idem cogitent.



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Olim patronatus artium officium nobilitatis erat, et foedus socio-culturale cum arti tum aristocratiae favebat: ars a patrono dilecta a mercatu libera manebat, et patronus artibus ornatus gloria aestimatione auctoritate erat. Patronatus artificum ac possessio capientium gloriosorum operum iustificabat opinatam quandam superioritatem socialem – quia princeps et dux Vergilium Latine valebant legere dum agricolae nequibant; quia rex vel papa Michaelangeli opera tectoria in palatiis habebant et Franciscus rex Leonardo magnanime sustentabat; quia Rudolphus Austriae dux Beethoven adiuvabat – omnes nobiles eo magis publica gloria erant quo magis sese artibus faventes ostentabant. Profecto tantum ars eo modo a mercatu libera tantam libertatem, audaciae praestantiam, maximam sublimitatem praebuerit, quod patronus quamquam in fovendo sese ostentare vult non se interponit in aestheticam operis substantiam, quae res propria artificis est, dum mercatus tamen, industria culturalis cupit ipsam substantiam praescribere ac singulos effectus ad maximum lucrum perficiendum. Finguntur genera aestheticae productionis quae non iam artifici sunt, neque artifex artem facit sed industria fingit artificem: qui e.g. scriptor librum ad vulgus edere vult, debet scribere non sua propria arte sed secundum praecepta generis cuiusdam “short story”, mercatorium programma quod discere debet apud scholam quandam infamem et eius “workshops” – casu contrario nullum agentem mediatorem neque omnino editorem inveniet. Se dedit enim mercatoriae humiliationi. Ubique industriae monopolium: Vide Simon & Schuster, vide Penguin, vide Gallimard, vide Fischer et Suhrkamp et iudicaris “programma” quod edunt. Certe neque mercatus nec patronatus necessariam verae arti libertatem praebent absolutam, quoniam patronus liberalis, quamquam saepe non iubet substantiam aestheticam, tamen contrahit patronatu rationem inaequalem cum artifice – qui semper honorem respectum obligatam observantiam patrono debet, dum vero limes inter honorem et adulationem, inter obligationem et servitutem haud clarus est. Ne liberalissimus quidem patronatus artem praeter omnem dubium liberat.



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Radiophonum, televisorium, cinematicum diu visa sunt industriae culturalis instrumenta totalitaria, quibus homo consumens nullum responsum articulare valebat sed omnia quiete ferre debebat. Hodie autem, cum classica instrumenta vim amittunt, difficilior est res, quod interrete nunc saltem possibilitatem responsi et aequalioris dialogi efficit, hoc interrete in eius antinomico aspectu et monstri anticulturalis et refugii intellectualis – monstrum scilicet, quia auctum infinitum, apicem culto-industrialis imperii manifestat. Rete expedit industriae etiam maius cultus monopolium, cum nunc homo patiens merces netflixis,1 youtubae viles videos ac twitteris uniformes opiniones consumat dum simul privata sua data facebooki et eius falso amicorum mercatui det, ubi cuncti tamquam tremenda ignorantium turba in iisdem ideologicis bullis fluctuant. Interrete profecto, quod foedus inter talia monopolia et industriam culturalem expedit, monstrum anticulturale, immo vero liberalis artis anti-Christus fit.

At simul rete portus et perfugium omnibus est qui propter criticam vocem exclusi sunt a radio, tv ac cinema ubi pauci monopoliorum iubentes domini decernunt quis taceat, quis loquatur, quid dicatur. Radiophono tunc uniformi turbae tyranni tantum vocem audire licebat, sed nunc dummodo velit ubique interretis contraria quaeret homo, qui iam non merus homo omnem industriae fraudem patiens est, non iam quietus contentus homo consumens. Cui licet homo criticus, homo quaerens ac quaerendus fieri. Sic interreti multo maior est facultas ut instrumentum Illuminismi fiat, maior quam radio cui nullus audiens respondere potest.



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2. Netflix, -is; youtube, -ae; twitter, -is: plura de declinationibus alinis reperitur apud The Carolingian 2018 II, Lingua torta lingua pulcherrima: http://greg-ory.org/tc18.html#va , scripsit Vatis Advena.


Ut tamen talia accidant oportet artificum, criticorum, immo intellectualium perseverantiam quandam Stoicam ironiam imitari – ironiam quidem illius herois tragici ante fatum inclemens si necesse fuerit: Ita vanum est pugnare ut propterea pugnet. Ita inane videtur quodcumque veri ac sublimis in interrete scribere ut nihilominus scribamus. Nobile est fati violentiam humana vi pugnare, nam etsi fatum maius est homine, qui fatum non timet fatum tenet. Id est enim ius tragicum quod industria a turba cupit auferre: ius pugnandi quod inimpugnabile videtur, ius irascendi contra fraudem quam industria invincibilem dicit, ut omnes tantam fraudem consumentes omnia quiete ferant. Non vincet autem tragoediae magnitatem quae etiam messianica est, nam non risus, non vilis culto-industrialis delectatio, tragoedia id est quod hominem liberat et salvat. Eo modo interrete omnibus tacite parat in iure irascendi etiam tragicum ius periendi, neque ullum ius nobilius est dummodo pereamus pro nobili causa – utamur tali iure. Utinam hoc modo pereamus et frustra sint labores: Perire pro nobili melius quam pro ignobili vincere.

Facultatem tragoediae et existentialem et artificiosam industria culturalis delet, turbam desensibilizare cupit ut porcus praeter conscientiam in limo volutet mediocris oblectamenti. At interrete, quoniam habet facultatem mediae viae efficiendae inter mercatum et patronatum, via fere messianica est qua tragoedia servatur. Nota quoque nomen “messianicum” hic bene adhibitum esse, cum omnis tragoedia finem habeat in sacrificio quodam pro nobili, ut casus est Christologicae symbologiae: Christi tragoedia in cruce simul humanitatis redemptio. Natura est verae tragoediae quod omnis clades contra fatum in singulorum interitu universam humanitatem salvat, immo ex omni tragoedia humanitas emergit dignior, tragoedia id est quod conscientiam dignitatis possibilem facit.



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Deletio autem hominis est oblivio, desensibilizatio quae Ausschwitz industrialem banalitatem aestimat. Oportet enim philosophos, intellectuales, artifices, aestheticae libertatis liberales amantes interreti et euis culturali facultati confidere, sese quaeso gratiores praebere, positivum erga rete habitum colere – nam hoc imperfectum instrumentum est unum rete quod cultus naufragos excipiat e mare in quod industria omnes iecit. Maiore studio necesse est interrete curare, ut iuxta vocem industriae etiam vox authenticae artis audiatur, artifices libertatis conscii foedus pro emancipatione faciant. Pretium scilicet technicum solvent, nam modo artifex qui suam paginam digitalem ipse struere valuerit liber erit a facebookis, googlae et aliorum “socialium ambituum” pseudo-patronatu atque alienationis clientela. Ut interrete officium suum mundanum-messianicum servet, necesse est rationum multitudinem ubique retis decentralizare ne paucae paginae interrete intra interrete fiant. Cum enim surgit in nautarum mente opinio quod interrete est facebook nec plus ultra, interit rete. Itaque officium gravissimum est omni modo veram interretis altitudinem et eius emancipatorias, immo vero utopicas facultates ostendere, etiamsi scimus, vel melius profecto quia scimus realitatem acriorem esse – iam per se acris est.



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Foedus inter artifices rectum ambitum interretiale perfecerit: Poeta musicus pictor suam quisque paginam libere ac bono codice struit, ibi opera ad vulgus edit, de arte colloquitur. Cohors artificum sese technica, praeconio ac consilio critico adiuvantium efficitur, qua cohorte internautae paginam quandam visitantes aditum ad alias habeant. Rectus decentralis ambitus liberalis fit qui interrete cultumque locupletet. Quod huiusmodi culturales ambitus tantum niches erunt nihil mutat: Malus est usus quo artifex cum opere suo idolum ac res adulanda fit, degeneratio tantum verae artis quae suo modo fragilis est, cuius consilium minine fuerit mundum obtinere sed potius singulare individui ingenium exprimere. Quoniam ars authentica numquam omnibus placet, industrialis tantummodo fraus adulatoria universam populi gloriam obtinuerit, quippe quia ad turbam adulandam adest et in hoc consilio modo efficax est quod pessima ac vilissima in animo appellat et sensus decipiendo defraudat. Usu huius psychologici apparatus industria culturalis aspectum suum illiberalem praebet, quo simulata ars omnino res mercatoria fit, scilicet simulata cum ei libertas desit. Ars non est authentica nisi e creatoria subiecti libertate emanet, cuius pretium est periculum paucissimis placendi – pretium autem solutu dignum, nam aesthetica transcendentia ac satisfactio et socialis et metaphysica ex arte libere condita praemium est quod non valet dare ille plausus ingentis turbae ignorantis cui applaudat, cum plausus pretium deceptio est – ubi deceptio culturalis ibi industrialis contemptio.



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Cum libertas ducit opus integrum sequitur. Ars authentica quaerit aestheticam emancipationem, sed in libertate ars cognoscit ipsius infirmitatem: Non valet mundum obtinere, non quia ei praeconium desit mundusque iniustus sit, verum quia natura gustus cuiusque ab aliorum differt, dum ars non fit authentica in absoluta pulchritudine assequenda, quam pulchritudinem nemo definire potest, sed authentica fit in libera ac spontanea sublimitate individualis cuiusdam rei expressae quae vulgarem rerum mediocratem transcendit. Quoniam rerum mediocritas est rerum violentia, impetus in ingenium ac sublimitatem, transcendentia artificiosa retinet etsi implicita mente conflictum quoddam cum sociali ac politico ordine hactenus quoad hic ordo totalitarium mediocritatis triumphum manifestat. Itaque ars authentica, quoniam gravis exhortatio contra mediocritatem est, dum autem maior societatis pars sub mediocritatis iugo vitam agit, ars authentica instrumentum subversionis est. Latet in ea altissima facultas subversiva. Quam videmus in Leonardi, Shakespearis, Beethovenis ingenio cum multis aliis. Qui quamvis non fecerint ex operibus suis meros inflammatos libellos ac viles pamphletos politicos, tamen eo altius clamitabant opera de reconditis suis pro mediocritatis eversione politica, meliore societate ac civitate – etiamsi clamor saepe utopicus fuit, qui clamor profecto artis tortuosa fortitudo est: Ars ut realitatis et fuga et redemptio.



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Quoniam homines secundum gustum differunt, impossibile est ut ars authentica omnibus placeat, ita ut tempore futuro ars adventura redibit ad locum e quo numquam egredi debuit – artifex fere anonymus, aestimatio sine fama, approbatio sine gloria, idolorum desmystificatio. Si ars ut scimus non oritur ad mundum tamquam desperatus exercitus obtinendum, non minus ars fit si minus nota, immo vero optimum ambitum hoc modo invenit. Interrete in eius antinomico aspectu et monstri anticulturalis et refugii intellectualis sine exaggeratione redemptionem vocaris, cum vero nostra aetate difficultas addita adsit in demographica et technologica impossibilitate omnium artificum aestimandorum ut merentur. Etiamsi omnes homines optimi artifices essent, nihilominus memoria paucorum privilegium esset, et vanum, quia omnia fortuita sunt arbitraria nec possibile esset memoriam paucorum servare sine iniusto aliorum detrimento qui non minus ingeniosi fuerunt. Operum aeternitas est fallaciosa repraesentatio quam tantum immodicae patronatus opes possibilem fecerunt, cum magnam famam publicam ac gloriam suis dilectis paraverint. Magna artificum pars quae sine patronatu vitam agit non peiorem artem creat. Leonardo, Beethoven, Shakespeare meritam famam habuerunt et adhuc perdurantem non quia singuli boni ingeniosi fuerint, verum quia unici bono patronatu fruebantur, dum simul qui non fruebantur non memorantur.



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ERRARE HVMANVM EST, ERRORES SOLVERE QVOQVE.

Pro errore grammatico si inveneris decem dollaria solvemus.

Non est grammaticus error quem quidam putent propriam (semanticam) aut genericam (stilisticam) differentiam ab usu classico. Ad errorem nuntiandum scribas ad: carolingian[at]use.startmail.com






Cum ista sint fatum, casus et exceptiones, authenticae artis naturalis conditio est anonymitas et finitas – anonyma quia fortuitus casus quo omnes optimi artifices optimos patronos inveniunt et vice versa rarus ac minime verisimilis est, dum de mercatu ne loquendum quidem est. Generalis revera ac naturalis, immo vero bona (si bene intueris) conditio est quod omnis ars, omne opus finitum modo corpus publicum assequitur, quin eligit corpus illorum qui opus aestimant (finitum scilicet quia, ut videmus, hominum gustus inter se differunt). Corpus electum quidem fit operis élite (ex archaico participio fr. verbi élire) ut corpus aestimantium electum, cum et opus aestimandum et corpus aestimantium alter alterum eligunt. Libertas civitatum aesthetica consistit in coexsistentia operum et eorum corporum electorum, ubi tales élites non iam sunt (ut hodie dicuntur) socio-politicae paucorum divitum potentes factiones antipopulares, verum potius multae minores impotentes decentrales cohortes amicorum coniunctae pro amore cuiusdam operis, artificis vel conceptus aesthetici. E varia coexistentium cohortium copia anonymitas fit, cum nimio multi sint artifices cum eorum niches3 ac cohortibus liberalibus. Ex anonymitate finitas fit, quod ars anonyma paucorum amantium cohorti non superest nec confisa sit (quo tandem modo?) patronorum concursui.



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3. Niche, -ae: plura de prima forma nominum alinenorum (niches, niches) invenitur apud The Carolingian 2018 II, Lingua torta lingua pulcherrima: http://greg-ory.org/tc18.html#va , scripsit Vatis Advena.


Sed opinionis error est quod ars authentica non tantum corpus aestimantium electum meretur verum etiam aeterna memoria frui debet, quod aliquod humani aeternitate dignum est, cum vita ipsa finita est et ars vitae expressio. Artis finitas sequitur ex humanae existentiae finitas, nec frivola est ars finita, nisi forte putaris existentiam ipsam frivolam – contra vel Leonardi, Beethovenis ac Shakespearis opera finita sunt, quae superfuerunt artificibus et patronis ad nostram aetatem sed non supererunt hominis existentiae ad finem damnatae, dum ipse orbis terrarum demum finem habebit. Vetus pro aeterna memoria postulatus sequitur ex alio artis conceptu in quo artis officium fuerit absolutam pulchritudinem exprimere, quod absolutum est aeternum, et artifex aeterna exprimens aeterna condit, aeternus fit. Sed pulchrum non potest nisi verum esse, et verum quod vita non permanet, dum ars cuius sublimitas vitae veritatem per artificis instrumenta et mentis et manus exprimit mendacium fuerit in clamando sese aeternam esse. Nam sublimitatis transcendentia vitam transcendit, non tempus, nec tempus sed vita est transcendenda, quae in artifice ridet, dolet, palpitat et sublimatur subiectivo intus labore opereque extra ingenioso, praeter aeternum et non-aeternum. Itaque primus artis gradus est subiectiva vitae sublimatio si satis est vis, secundus transcendentiae expressio per opus si satis est ingenium, tertius vero critica ratio cum parva aestimantium cohorte si fortuna felix est. Ita ars sine mercatu vel patronatu, cum omnino ad dolorem, inopiam, brutalem fortunam exposita sit, in omni sui dolore ac fragilitate una ars est digna nomine liberae quae nihil nemini debet. Nulla nisi libera ars exprimit emotionalem superationem vitae in eius brutali irrationalitate. Quae semper paucos commovebit, quia non omnibus est aesthetica existentialis sensibilitas ad operis pondus intelligendum. Quoniam iudicium aestheticum non iam officium patronatus est nec mercatus bona fide sed pro lucro iudicat, legitimum est iudicium quod bona fide studium ac dialogum criticum cum opere quaerit, illegitima autem cupiditas finalis vel universalis iudicii faciendi. Sic nihil artis interest de tempore ac finitate, nam quamquam vita se gerit in tempore artis conflictus est cum vita, non cum tempore. Quae hoc modo valet vitam transcendere, ars etsi anonyma et oblivioni exposita nihilominus ars libera, sublimis – perfecta.



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Patrocinio classico cum vetere aristocratia everso, non est impediendum quin artifices suo proprio labori exponantur ut se sustentent – sed differentiae sunt inter vivere arte et arti vivere. Officium existentiale omnis authentici artificis est arti vivere, quomodocumque pecunias sumptusque parat, nam arti vivere valet vivere pro arte. Sed arte vivere significat artem in negotium convertere ut ipsa ars sumptus principalis fons fiat. Periculum rei scilicet inest, quia etsi non est per se malum quod ars rationem quandam cum mercatu contrahit, oportet tamen limes distinguatur inter opus et mercem. Nam ubi mercatus est ibi rerum pretium, sed pretium authenticae artis profecto insolubile est, cum liberum ingenium, subversio ac transcendentia non habeant valorem pecunia mensurabilem, nec liceat mediocri mercatui (non valet) artis valorem metiri. Quamobrem operis ratio cum mercatu non debet eadem esse ac saponis. Quoniam artifex mercatum adit cum re sine pretio vere solubili, ratio non potest nisi conflictus esse, quod mercatus pretio mensurabilia petit dum artifex immensurabilia praebet. Unde fit ut omnis sumptus revera ex opere vendito non possit intellegi ut operis pretium, sed potius artificis anonymum patrocinium. Anonymum quia opus, cum ad mercatum liberum exponatur, nescio quis emere potest qui artificem novit aut ignorat. Patrocinium autem, cum pecuniaria solutio non solvat verum existentiale pretium operis, praemio potius afficit bene merentem artificem pro insolubili opere. In tali igitur ingrato conventu artis cum mercatu, opus si pretium habet carissimum sit aut nihilo constet – alioquin artis appropriatio mercatoria ac metamorphosis in commodam mercem plena fuerit.



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Magna pretii caritas rei gravitatem manifestat, quod authenticae arti cum eius transcendentia non licet res frivola aestimari, neque oportet sublimitati vile pretium sit. Inde colligitur fallaciosam opinionem esse quod arti mercatus inveniendus est. Arti mercatus repudiatio natura inest. Praeter artifices qui mercatum petunt sese ab optione privatos putantes, qui aestimant arte vivere possibile esse et significare mercatum ita adire ut demum non arti vivant sed mercatui, praeter illusorum multitudinem quae ignorat artem non genus negotii esse, praeter illos artifex arti vivens, cum opus quoddam ad vulgus tulit, magnae parti gratuitum ad exemplaria aditum concedit, dum simul minutam ac selectam copiam magno pretio afficit, caritate symbolica scilicet, ut opibus potentiores exemplaria forsitan empturi possibilitatem patrocinii ac liberalitatis habeant. Nam quamvis differentiae sint inter patronatum et patrocinium, quod patronatus est diuturnum artium patrocinium ab aristocratia vel omni homine cuius a sociali statu praecipua liberalitas exspectatur, dum patrocinium significat omne auxilium artifici datum – tamen licet authenticae arti, dum simul aditus ad quam plurimos concedit, proximam cohortem aestimantium vel etiam mercatum adire ad paucorum patrocinium eliciendum, potius quam vili universali pretio opus inquinare.



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Interrete rursum pervia ac difficilis synthesis e patronatu et mercatu adhiberi potest ut fragilis limbus technologicus: Emancipato artifice a catenis reticulorum socialium et horum industriali mediocrique morum monocultura, retis liberae paginae habent facultatem (1) et operis ad vulgus gratuito communicandi ac cohortis aestimantium (inter quam minoris cohortis amicorum) inveniendae, (2) et intra virtualis mercatus abstractum ambitum liberalis patrocinii alliciendi. Hoc modo artifici instrumentum datur quod antiqui non habebant, sed interrete non solvit artis paradoxa socialia: (1) Quod libertas artis authenticae etiam libertatem a mercatu significat, dum artifex caret quadam ratione cum mercatu ut vivat; (2) quod ad artem liberam creandam artifex otio caret, sed sine mercatu vel patronatu tempus adhibendum est ad salarium quaerendum; (3) quod artifex natura clamatur ad arti vivendum sed arte vivere non potest: Officium non est professio. Quoniam nihil melius quam ars exprimit hominis fragilitatem in conflictu cum vita, ars est tantum instrumentum ad conflictum tractandum, parum finis conflictus, minime solutio vitae difficultatum: Perfectam symphoniam neque audire ne componere quidem solvet pecuniam debitam. Brutalitas autem ironica est, nam nullius est momenti utrum apud McDonalds labores an apud Siemens praefectus sis: Quomodocumque pecuniam quaeris, modus quaerendi vim ingenium artem non afficit. Quod interrete parabili pretio omnibus accessibile manet, id est ironiae altera pars.



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Adorno recte degradationem artis industrialem reprobavit, sed quamvis bene animadverterit hanc industriam artem frivolam, immo merum artificium ridendi causa producere, tamen ars seria gravis sublimis quam industria culturalis creare nequit interdum industriae praeda fit. Eodem modo quo radiophono, tv ac cinemà industria ingenti quantitate atque uniformitate consumendas merces ad magnam turbae partem fabricatur, etiam saepius nonnullis artis authenticae operibus ad suum lucrum abutitur, ita ut originali subversionis ac transcendentiae sensu privata nunc triviales luxus merces ad divitiorem mercatum fiant. Itaque theatra musicalia et operistica magis magisque ignoranti publico repertorium repetitivum, vel etiam commerciale praebent ex electis bene sonantibus operibus, magna parte ex undevicesimo saeculo, quae opera optimum adulatorium effectum in incautorum auribus faciunt et simul alliciunt in theatrum multitudinem divitum qui sese rei peritissimos putant. Ubicumque intueris, ex Scala di Milano usque ad New York Metropolitan, septimo quoque mense iam rursus La Traviata ac La Bohème canunt, iam neminem deprehendit repertorium omnino praevisibile. Varietas audacia libertas quas olim theatra habuere amissae sunt, quae meliori tempore artem contemporaneam fovebant, cum ipsi Verdi et Puccini artifices diei erant.



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Sed praeter illos non audies Palestrinam, non audies Ligeti et multos alios quorum opus aut non minus merito aut merito maiore est – quia nimium est periculum lucri amittendi et parum artis amor, ubi pragmatica ut dicitur ratio est trivializationis circulum vitiosum perpetuare et publicum commerciali fraude sub superioris artis simulatione alienare. Repertorium fossile ac crystallizatum nunc ampliorem triumphum industriae culturalis in classicam musicam manifestat, fundamentalem appropriationem culturalem (Maria Callas olim maxime ingeniosa etiam victima huius appropriationis fuit), immo vero totalem ac totalitariam incorporationem in culto-industriale programma pro liquidatione aestheticae libertatis et sensibilitatis tragicae – repente sonat e tv Un bel dì vedremo in saponis praeconio: Un bel dì vedremo! Quae aria iuxta tv in »radiostatione classica« simul sonat, cuius repertorium Mozart, Beethoven, Tchaikovski alternat et omne dissonantiae vestigium liquidat, omnem concentum qui non statim auribus placet et mininum laborem interpretativum poscit. Itaque Debussy reducitur ad Clair de Lune et Rêverie, dum audaces Études ac Préludes, vel Beethovenis sera quadricinia dissonantia vel etiam Josquin des Près et veteris contrapuncti magistri omnino eiciuntur de radiophonica navi, quae sub cultus simulatione porro fraudem gerit cui omnes plaudunt.



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Apud impressa nuntiaria editur iudicatio de vili fabula criminali iuxta tractationem de Bach ac Palestrina ut obvia vel naturalis res. Cottidie culturalia supplementa renuntiant de cultindustriali quadam merce nequaquam nuntio digna, cuius editio autem nuntiaria ut addita instrumenta industrialis deceptionis turbae probat. Impressa artem praeter mercatum authenticam neglegunt, cum ipsa mercatus pars sint et lucri cupientia. Apud New York Times virtuali nuntiario iudicium de libro quodam legis et in ipsa pagina iam nexum ad editorem vides ut summa commoditate emas, anti-intellectualem metamorphosin iudicii critici in praeconium commerciale, nam etiamsi iudicium litterarium non admodum insincerum est, nihilominus animadversis nuntiarii contractis cum editoribus liberum non est. Censura critica tantum reprobatoria erit hactenus quoad lector librum emere cupiat, dum iudicii serii veritatem praeter circumstantia quaerentis nihil interest utrum liber veneat annon. Huiusmodi mercennaria ratio impressorum cum industria litteraria semper excludit qui scribentes sublimitatem mercatui praeponunt, nec mirum est quod Rimbaud poeta nec sua nec nostra aetate aditum in nuntiaria invenisset, cuius memoria non impressis debetur. Subversio transcendentia sublimitas modo reperiuntur ubi vis ingenium audacia aesthetica et existentialis libera sunt, quae elementa rursus avantgarde tantum praebet, libertas ut experimentum, inconformitas, aesthetica rerum sublimatio. Hoc modo Michelangelo Bach Baudelaire avantgardae artem ad lucem duxerunt, neque alia opera nomen artis merentur nisi inimpeditae, incompromissae avantgardae.



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Subversio ut supra dictum non reducitur ad censuram criticam socialem, nec debet, quod censura, ubi manifestus pamphletus politicus fit, ibi sese prima facie dedit neque aliis subiectivum laborem interpretativum permittit. Quod ars non fit ex sola critica censura manifestum est ex eo quod pura censura exprimenda nullum ingenium poscit, et hoc modo quicumque censuram criticam exprimeret artifex esset, nec superesset differentia inter artificem et politicum. Sed omnes politici homines non sunt artifices quia omnibus non est ingenium ac facultas operis creandi quod mediocritatem atque iniquitatem non modo censura critica damnat verum etiam sublimitate subiectiva superat. Sic fit ut musica hip hop ac rap, quamvis censuram socialem articulet, tamen parum subversiva sit, nam subversio ut artis elementum libera spontanea impraevisibilis est – dum rapis genus quippe quia genus est in contrarium vertit, fixo rhythmo iubente illiberalis, repetitivus ac praevisibilis ritus fit. Phaenomenon igitur perpetuat quod ubique gentium in culturali industria reperimus: reductionem ad genus. At artis reductio ad genus sic mala gravisque est ut argumenti reductio ad absurdum, cum hic logica ratio, illic libertas ingenii pessum eat. Reductio ad genus scilicet non ab industria culturali inventa est: Cantus gregorianus et iconographia exempla antiqua sunt. Differentia ab hodierna reductione est quod Medio Aevo reductio ab ideologia metaphysica praescribebatur, dum nostra aetate commercialis industria illiberalis et anti-metaphysica tenet monopolium generis dictandi. Mediaevalis saltem reductio libera erat a mercatu, dum hodie paradoxon exempli gratia hip-hopis ac rapis est quod musica et criticam societatis censuram et rem mercatoriam praebet – opus fit clamor commercialis contra commercialitatem, reducitur et ad genus et ad absurdum. Si tantae censurae criticae finis est CDs vendere, si finis est ebriorum multitudinem in discotheca delectare, qui ebrii saltantes nesciunt quid audiant et cui vel cur applaudant, quid tandem superest de critica substantia, quid de subversione, quid de libero ingenio? Quamquam hip-hopi ac rapi scilicet facultas est authenticae artis creandae, magna musicorum pars ad adversum casum pessum datur, quia magis de reductione ad genus quam de libero ingenio curant – exceptis paucis ut Scott-Heron, qui parum se generi cuidam inserentes authenticae subversioni ac transcendentiae appropinquarunt.












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Folium III





Why Reform is Impossible

PSYCHOPATHOLOGY OF SPELLING
REFORM OPPONENTS

Justin B. Rye




For some years1 now I’ve been amusing myself by planning exactly what I would try in the way of “spelling reform” if I woke up one morning and found that the Revolutionary Stalinist–Linguist Party had mounted a coup and appointed me as World Dictator.  Details of my proposal for a Revolting Orthography (modestly titled “Romanised English”) are unlikely ever to become available; for now I want to get it clearly established exactly how mad this scheme is. The problems with our current system are sufficiently well known that I feel no need to rehearse them all here; and people have been protesting about the situation for centuries. So just what is wrong with the idea of switching to something better? Anti-reformists come in thirteen basic flavours, with arguments summarisable as follows: the Status Quo Fan; the Fonetics Phreak; the Homophono­phobe; the Remington Salesman; the Culture Vulture; the Speed-Reader; the Crossword-Puzzler; the French Teacher; the Bon-Mot Aficionado; the Etymological Determinist; the Cockney Patriot; the Morpho-phonologoster; the Politician.



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1. This essay is also available on the writer’s website under the link http://jbr.me.uk/ortho.html.


1. The Status-Quo Fan

The normal reply by your run-of-the-mill wimpish gradualist reformer tends to be something along the lines of: Oh dear! I’ll have to try to persuade you it’s a good thing. Well, uh, look; the old style gives GH well over a dozen possible pronunciations: BridGHam, CallaGHan, doGHouse, drouGHt, EdinburGH, eiGHth, GHost, ginGHam, hiccouGH, houGH, HuGH, KeiGHley, lonGHand, louGH, ouGHt, siGHt, touGH! The new version is quicker, easier, more elegantly logical, and less cruel to small children (or indeed the billions of adults apparently doomed to learn English as a world language).  Please try to be a bit more open‐minded!

I on the other hand prefer the kind of reply that goes: Eat leaden death, loathsome bourgeois counter-revolutionary running-dogs!  (Did I say giving me Absolute Power would necessarily be a good thing?)



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2. The Fonetics Phreak

The correct response to this argument, overlooked surprisingly often by supposed experts, is: You [ʩǂ̼ʚ̃ʡ]wit! Who said anything about a phonetic system? All we need is one that’s roughly graphemic (“one reading per grapheme”) and preferably phonemic (“one spelling per phoneme”) and/or morphemic (“one spelling per morpheme”).



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In such a system:

(1) The compound phoneme /dʒ/, which functions as a unit in the English sound system, can conveniently be spelt with the letter J.



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(2) Phonetic variants of /æ/ or /t/ are no concern of a well designed script; dialectal cases – especially ones as inconsequential as the ones quoted above – are easy to handle (see below on dialects).

(3) If the individual words are pronounced in isolation as du, yu, wont, tu, nothing is forcing us to put the reduced versions in the dictionary (any more than we need to put glottal stops in the alphabet).


3. The Homophonophobe

These words already are indistinguishable when spoken, but when did this fact last cause you any significant inconvenience in a conversation? People naturally avoid ambiguities in speech unless they’re trying to contrive a pun, so if you write as you would speak homophones are no problem. Contrariwise, ambiguous spellings like axes, bass, bow, buffet, close, does, dove, lead, live, minute, moped, number, putting, ragged, read, row, sow, supply, tarry, tear, use, wind, wound currently are a problem; and such misleading homographs (or do I mean heterophones?) could be sorted out by the most moderate of spelling reforms.



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Besides, there will be plenty of slack in the system to distinguish between fisher and fisyur, maynor and mayner; and as for cession… what does it mean, anyway? I’m not making these examples up, you know.

Other major world languages faced with the homophony problem have found solutions such as the following:



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4. The Remington Salesman

At present almost every letter of the alphabet is severely overstrained – it’s “EIGH” as in beAuty, “BEE” as in numB, “SEE” as in musCle, “DEE” as in hanDkerchief, “EE” as in siEvEd, “EPH” as in oF, “JEE” as in Gnomonic, “AITCH” as in Hour, “EYE” as in busIness, “DGEIGH” as in mariJuana, “CAIGH” as in Knee, “ELL” as in couLd, “EM” as in Mnemonic, “EN” as in damN, “EAU” as in leOpard, “PEE” as in Pneumonic, “KEW” as in lacQuer, “AHR” as in dossieR, “ESS” as in iSle, “TEE” as in husTle, “YOO” as in bUild, “VEE” as in kalashnikoVs, “DOUBLEYOO” as in Wry, “ECKS” as in fauX, “WIGH” as in mYrrh, “ZED” as in capercailZie! But in a reform, what’s to stop us using two‐letter graphemes (as in sh ow)? That way there are more than enough possibilities; we can even retire Q, X, and our existing ugly diacritic, the apostrophe! One new vowel symbol would be handy; I’d go for Scandinavian‐style slashed O as in Bjørn.



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But by the way, while we’re addressing hypothetical typewriter manufacturers, I’d better warn them that the old QWERTY keyboard will be declared ungoodthinkful too. Its deliberately unergonomic layout, designed to slow down common sequences on early manual typewriters, is a thoroughly pointless legacy once we’re typing different common sequences on unjammable palmtop keypads.


5. The Culture Vulture

Normal reformers’ reply: Aren’t you overreacting a bit? We’ll phase it in slowly, so there’s plenty of time to reprint the classics – most of the editing required is simple search‐and‐replace work. Compare the gradual process of metrication. Other languages manage spelling reforms once a generation; and the Japanese seem to be perfectly happy using several very different writing systems in parallel!



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My additional remarks: First – if, as is here conceded, the old orthography looks so very unlike a reasonable one… why stick with it? People complained about the jarring novelty of electric lights, but I don’t hear anyone these days campaigning for a change back. Second – anyone caught using pecks and bushels after the tenth anniversary of my glorious rule will be branded on the forehead with the word idiot. And third – trying to read Shakespeare “in the original” is futile. As originally composed, it was…

1. Handwritten in an indecipherable style with inconsistent spelling, not printed in the modern standard orthography. Witness the following random sample from “Henry VI Part 3” (III 91–92): I am a ſubieƈt fit to ieaſt withall, / But farre vnfit to be a Soueraigne. And remember, he never once spelt his name Shakespeare!

2. Designed to be declaimed with a thick sixteenth‐century accent: “OY AHM UH SOOBJEK FIT TOE JAIST WI‐THAAL, BOOT FAR‐ROONFIT TOE BEE UH SAWVA‐RAYN”. Anything else ruins it as poetry! To contemporary listeners pass made a good rhyme for was, and departure for ſhorter; the author’s name was more like “SHEXPAIRR” than “SHEYKSPEEAH”.

3. Full of extinct grammatical features – wherefore art thou Romeo? means “Why are you (named) Romeo?”; liue thou, I liue means “if you should live, I will live”; and knocke me at this gate means “knock on the door for me”. On the other hand, “I’m being told its story, aren’t I” (with passive progressive, neuter possessive, and irregular question tag) would have sounded utterly ungrammatical to Shakespeare.



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4. Intended for an audience familiar with Elizabethan idioms, topical references, and worldview – Divine Right of Kings, the Four Humours, Jews as bogeymen, etc. Modern performances ignore most of the puns and subtexts – fortunately for his reputation.

In other words, the whole thing is unintelligible without either an annotated translation, which might as well be in a reformed spelling, or weeks of specialised training, which would be no more worthwhile than teaching every child how to pilot a biplane.


6. The Speed-Reader

Actually, there are three skills involved in fluent reading…

(1) Word‐anticipation, guessing what will come next on the basis of context. This is what speed‐reading really depends on, and it’s essentially independent of the writing system involved.



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(2) Word‐recognition, treating words (or occasionally syllables) as arbitrary units to be memorised. This can be a useful skill once mastered, but a painful one to acquire – ask any Japanese kid. The way the current orthography forces learners to handle many common words as unique arbitrary glyphs (doesn’t one though?) is a stumbling‐block many schoolchildren never really get over.

(3) Word‐analysis, handling words as collections of sounds. Even though English makes it unreliable, this is the basic strategy for beginners, and still a constituent of any truly literate adult’s reading skills – does the word squilliform give you any trouble? You may not consciously spell out (e.g.) the word HANDBAG as H A N D B A G, but if it was just a silhouette you’d have to learn it separately from handbaɡ or indeed – look closely at those letter shapes!

The upshot is that spelling reform might be briefly awkward for word‐recognisers, but would eventually be an advantage even for them – if only because it allows more hieroglyphs to fit on a page! For children (and many, many adults), it would be an enormous, immediate, and permanent improvement. Or at least, as good as permanent; if the orthodox system can outlive its best‐before date by half a millennium, we can leave the next reform for Buck Rogers to worry about.



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7. The Crossword-Puzzler

Ah, yes, a much more intelligent point (okay, I admit it, this one’s a plant; I’ve never seen it considered anywhere else, but I thought it deserved an airing). Scrabble‐players will have to decide whether to play “historical” or “recalibrated” Scrabble; the rest of us will just have to get used to the idea that the E.U. is the Y(uropian) Y(union), K.O.s are N(ok)‐A(wt)z, the C.I.A. is the S(entral) I(ntelijens) E(yjensi), and a G.H.Q. is a J(eneral) H(ed)‐K(worterz)! A.I.D.S. may still be A.I.D.S., but this is no longer the same as the word eydz; and since any serious reform would also change the names of the letters, even the unaltered initialisms may be hard to recognise in speech: A.I. for instance becomes “AH EE”. If you think that’s confusing, count yourself lucky I’m not reforming the Phoenician‐derived alphabetical order!

Come to think of it, I.D., O.K., and many others (especially tradenames) are already anomalies, not standing for any particular real series of English words; and acronyms such as laser, quango, or ufo are effectively independent of their original forms too. Do we make it aydi, leyzer or I.D., L.A.S.I.R.? And as for G.N.U. (“GNU’s Not Unix”)… I don’t particularly care what happens in these cases; but the marketing director of I.C.I. might.



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8. The French Teacher

True, our Norman‐influenced orthography is a bridge between English and French. But why force everyone to learn it as the only spelling system for English? Most Asian (or even Scandinavian) learners of English care little for French; and Texans would be better off with a bridge towards Spanish. Personally, I would have been happy to learn a bit about Anglo‐Norman during my years as a French student, but nobody wanted to tell me anything about it then!

There are three main problems with spelling English as Anglo-Norman:

1. Mediaeval French isn’t Modern French. The three examples above used to be pronounced roughly as spelt (“TSHAN‐DZHES”, “DZHO‐INTS”, “QUA‐LEAFY‐CATSY‐ONS”), but nowadays they’re barely recognisable (“SHAHNGZH”, “ZHWENG”, “KALI‐FEEKASS‐YAWNG”). French could do with a new broom of its own – I’d suggest xanjhz, jwentz, kalifikasionz!



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2. Mediaeval English isn’t Modern English. The biggest change is the Great Vowel Shift, which is responsible for our pronunciation of A, E, I, O, U as “EH EE EYE OWE EWE” (as in no other writing system on the planet), rather than approximately “AH EH EE OH OO” (as in Old English, Finnish, Latin, Indonesian, Swahili… etc.). The first hurdle for language teachers is usually to persuade pupils that (e.g.) dei is “DAY‐EE” not “DEE‐EYE”; a spelling reform that made English less insular would be a great help here.

3. Mediaeval French never was Mediaeval English. Applying Romance orthographic prejudices to a Germanic language just caused trouble from the start – witness the Norman scribes’ use of:



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And then there’s the confused way they handled the voiced fricative sounds:

All in all, we’re better off without our Anglo-Norman heritage!


9. The Bon-Mot Aficionado



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English is hospitable to immigrant words because it has simple morphology, rich phonology, and a cosmopolitan tradition. Spelling is irrelevant – witness the words fatwa, futon, and glasnost, taken from languages that don’t even spell them in the same writing system as we do! My policy on imports would be:

1. Words that retain foreign citizenship are immune to English spelling rules, and are spelt as the source language prefers, but italicised to alert naïve readers to the fact that (for instance) Fräulein isn’t pronounced “FRAWLEEN”. They may not be able to guess how it is pronounced, but that problem will if anything be reduced by the reform.

2. Some imports may have debatable transcriptions, either because of changes back home (for instance, Neanderthal lost its silent H in German over a century ago) or doubt about the best romanisation (Koran or Qurʾān?  Shintō or Sintoo?). Never mind.

3. Words which have made English their permanent home must conform to its rules. If there really is such a word as connoisseur, it’s an English one with no special right to a funny spelling – the French say connaisseur. The same applies one way or another to the mock‐French spellings of all the words and phrases in the following list: blancmange, bon viveur, double entendre, épergne, forté, locale, morale, nom‐de‐plume, papier‐mâché, rationale, resumé, table d’hôte.



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4. Foreign‐language placenames can ignore the reform, but many places have English names independent of the forms used by their inhabitants. Munich, Peking, and Spain are English words, and so get reformed (Myunik, Piykinh, Speyn) no matter what the locals call them.

5. Many terms from classical languages (alias, Hades, Julius Caesar, nisi) have acquired “anglicised” pronunciations. These are genuinely problematic; should they be respelt (Juwlius Siyzar), or even repronounced (“YULI‐OOS KY‐SAR”)? And come to that, the Shakespearean play was The Tragedie of Ivlivs Cæſar, originally pronounced “JOOH‐LEE‐OOS SAY‐ZAR”! Fortunately, some shortcuts can be taken; archaisms can be treated as foreignisms.

6. Personal names are rather like historical spellings in that your birth certificate may be regarded as definitive; Mr Geoffrey Ewan Quinn won’t necessarily have to re‐monogram all his possessions as the property of Mr Jefri Yuan Kwin. However, new names should be spelt sanely; and anyone who wants to avoid constantly telling people “Well, okay, it’s pronounced FANSHAW but it’s spelt Featherstonehaugh” should switch. I for one would be perfectly happy to become a romanised Ray.



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10. The Etymological Determinist

If etymology is a sufficiently important subject that primary school children are forced to master a Mediaeval Reenactment writing system on this basis, why are those children never actually taught even the basics of linguistic history? Surely any kid who has gone to the trouble of learning an etymological spelling for wrestling (etc.) should be entitled to go on and take the subject at GCSE level! But somehow I suspect that most people find etymology supremely unimportant in their lives… If anyone ever needs to know the origin of the word reslinh, there will still be dictionaries about. Come to that, they will be easier to use (you can find the word under R) and have more room for etymologies (as they need less room for pronunciation guides)!

Besides, why stop at Old English? Why not write everything in Proto‐Indo‐European? English spelling is much less help as a guide to lexical history than it would be if anyone cared, featuring as it does…



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1. Double Standards – inconsistent cut‐off points for retaining silent letters. My favourite example is the homophonophobes’ reign/rain. These spellings might seem to imply that reign, unlike rain, was until recently pronounced “REAGAN”. However, a millennium or so ago, reign was a Latinate word pronounced “REH‐NYUH” (with no “G”); rain was a Germanic word pronounced “REGHN” (with a definite “G”).

2. False Resemblances – there’s no bread in gingerbread (Old French gingembraz); likewise for the apparent components of arrowroot, checkmate, cockroach, crayfish, demijohn, hangnail, lapwing, muskrat, outrage, penthouse, pennyroyal, rakehell, wheatears, woodchuck, wormwood.

3. Crypto‐Doublets – spellings which disguise rather than demonstrate the connections between such surprising cognate pairs as ague/cute, apron/mop, coy/quit, cryptic/grotesque, epée/spade, equip/skiff, fancy/pant, gopher/waffle, sovereign/soprano, tradition/treason, tulip/turban.

4. Red Herrings – spellings which are neither phonologically nor etymologically justifiable, as in aCHe, agHast, aiSle, aLmond, ancHor, arbOUr, bliGHt, bUild, bUry, cauGHt, (musical) cHords, coLonel, couLd, crumB, deliGHt, dHow, endeAvOUr, dingHy, fOetus, foreiGn, gHastly, gHerkin, gHost, ginkGo, glamOUr, glisTen, hauGHty, iSland, lacHrymose, limB, lisTen, misdemeanOUr, neighbOUr, numB, postHumous, Ptarmigan, QUeue, redouBt, rHumb, rHyme, roWlocks, sCent, Scissor, sCythe, sovereiGn, spriGHtly, thumB, tongUE, wHelk, Whole, Whore. All the capitalised letters are spurious, and often they were deliberately added as “improvements” by incompetent etymologists.



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I’m not saying we should necessarily wipe out such etymological traces as the specific unstressed vowels in inter­administrative or even the Greek PHs in philosopher (which can all convey useful morphological information); just that etymology isn’t one of an orthography’s main concerns.


11. The Cockney Patriot

At last we’re getting to the non‐trivial arguments! Yes, there’s an important problem here that the system has to deal with carefully. But its nature is still obscured by several layers of misunderstanding, which I’ll try to handle quickly:



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There are four basic ways in which accents can vary:

1. Phonetic (or “realisational”) variation. Trifling but obvious features like the way Cockneys pronounce bay almost as “BUY” (while buy becomes more like “BOY” and boy like “BOOY”). Cockneys have no trouble distinguishing them and lining them up correctly with the written forms, so this is irrelevant to the orthography.

2. Phonemic (or “systemic”) variation. Added or lost distinctions, such as between “TH” and “F” (Cockneys pronounce thin the same as fin). If the spelling system makes more distinctions than you do, you can ignore them while reading, and your difficulties in learning to write will be nothing new or serious (“Hmm, is it spelled theft or feft?”). On the other hand if it makes fewer distinctions you’ll have serious trouble reading (“Hmm, does it mean THREE or FREE?”). The lesson I draw from this is that the spelling system should make all the available phonemic distinctions – and not just the ones the Queen makes.



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3. Phonotactic (or “distributional”) variation. This is variation dependent on the phonetic context, like the way Cockneys – and in fact the English generally – drop any “R” sound that isn’t followed by a vowel (so that “LARDER” = “LADA”). Again, the orthography should side with those who keep the distinctions clear, which in this case means spelling a lot of words with an R omitted by BBC newsreaders.

4. Lexical (or “selectional”) variation. Disputed idiomatic cases such as “GRASS/GRAASS” or “DOSSLE/DOHCYLE”. Where these are real regional standards rather than merely outbreaks of “spelling‐pronunciation” (like saying “CUP‐BOARD” for “KUBBERD”), they have as much right to be tolerated as alternative spellings as they have to be tolerated as alternative pronunciations. Obviously, you ought to be consistent, but if your recipes refer to tomeyto they will communicate at least as effectively as if you “standardised” it to tomahto.

In summary, then… as long as people understand the ways accents vary (a body of knowledge which will clearly be one of the main influences on the system’s rules, but which any Cockney already needs for communication with non‐Cockneys), there is no reason to imagine that there are any insurmountable problems here – how many of the people who claim that creating a pandialectal scheme is impossible have ever even tried?



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12. The Morphophonologoster

Reply: Absolutely – the morphemic principle (One Spelling Per Morpheme) conflicts with the phonemic system and is worth making concessions over. Affixes that still work as productive processes, like plural ‑s or past tense ‑ed, should be given consistent single spellings wherever possible (including words such as pianos/potatoEs, publicly/cyclicALly, wiry/fiEry where the conventional spellings are flagrant breaches of this principle). Likewise, compromises can be found for the stress‐shift and consonant‐softening cases, though there is room for debate about how far it should be allowed to complicate things…



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1. Foreign languages – even those with exemplary orthographies – flout this principle all the time. Portuguese doesn’t exactly signpost the link between nação and nacional – and Welsh doesn’t even enforce stable initial letters: “nation” is cenedl, but “in a nation” is yng nghenedl!

2. Stress‐shift is troublesome only if the unstressed “schwa” sound is treated as a phoneme in its own right needing to be uniformly represented with a special unique symbol. But accents vary widely in where they use schwas – for instance mine keeps the “I”‐sounds in bIzarre, pidgIn distinct from the schwa‐sounds of bAzaar, pidgeOn (a distinction rarely allowed for in US spelling reform proposals). It makes more sense to write unstressed syllables with the normal range of vowel symbols, and rely on the reader to apply appropriate schwaing rules.

3. While I’d be happy to compromise on fuSion and its many relatives, which are easy to accommodate, I am unconvinced by the idea of special treatment for “softening” C and G. Are they really live phonological processes? The suffix ‑ic hardly deserves a special spelling rule of its own to cover “IKAL/ISSITY”!



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4. Vowel‐shifted doublets in particular need no special privileges. With so many cases – I could also quote natural/nAture, recess/recEde, senility/senIle, conical/cOne, humble/hUmility – it should be self‐evident no matter how we spell it that (e.g.) “short IH” is often related to “long EYE”. It would be a step forward if English‐speakers recognised this explicitly, rather than just vaguely taking the two sounds to be “the same thing”.

5. Where do we stop? There are plenty of morphemic links that are concealed by the Anglo‐Norman orthography. Should we insert rules into the spelling system to connect abound/abundant, destroy/destruction, fool/folly, join/junction, ordain/ordination, receive/reception, solve/solution, voice/vocal, and all the crypto‐doublets quoted in the etymology section?


13. The Politician



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Well, I’m certainly glad I didn’t say that…

Imagine the heartaches
Of diplomatic attaches
When the wind detaches
Their false moustaches.


Afterword

In case you’re wondering, no, I don’t believe that this sort of wholesale spelling reform would be a workable proposition, but I’m so sick of watching Aunt Sally reform proposals being pelted with ridiculously inadequate arguments that I thought it would make a nice change if I wrote something equally biassed and unfair in the other direction… So don’t expect me to provide a Mailbox like the one on my anti‐Esperanto page! The flaws of the standard orthography are indefensible – but it has an extensive Installed User Base, and can thus afford to ignore criticism in exactly the same manner as QWERTY keyboards, Fahrenheit thermometers, and certain software packages, which can all rely on conformism, short‐termism, and sheer laziness for their continued survival.












© The Carolingian 2019, culture, arts, aesthetics.
Flat 7, 18 High Street, Petersfield, GU32 3JL, United Kingdom
carolingian[at]use.startmail.com







Folium IV





De Usu Virgulae

CONSIDERATIONES
DE ORTHOGRAPHIA LATINA

Eustácio de Sales




1. Antiqui non utebantur nostro systemate punctionis orthographicae. Cum enim de signorum recto usu disputatur, vanum est classicos quaerere quasi veritatis dominos: Cicero nullo auxilio est. Itaque hodierni saepe ad orthopunctionem suarum linguarum spectant et regulas regionales in Latinam vertunt. Quarum ex usu non raro animadverti potest lingua scribentis materna. Inter praecipua signa exstat virgula, etiam comma vocata, cuius usus propter saeculorum vicissitudinem ac scriptorum inobservantiam minime unitarius est. Orthographia diu neglecta fuit a magna eruditorum parte, quorum studium adhuc est classicos imitari potius quam linguam reddere aptam ad nostrae aetatis circumstantes rationes. Sed non disputaturus sum cum Ciceronianis, nam nemo est dominus linguae Latinae nec cuiquam officium est rationes reddere de eius usu.

Multo gratius est disputare quomodo assequatur, conspectis temporibus, magis unitarius usus elementorum orthographiae maxime simplicium sed magni momenti. Quoniam virgula in horum numero est et fundamentale signum, sum adumbraturum usum qui rationibus explicaturis mihi rectissimus videtur. Quae tractare scilicet momenti est, quod magna pars non modo scribentium, verum etiam editorum, saepius quam rectum est vitia suarum linguarum vertentes Latinam orthographiam iam dubiam vel magis corrumpunt, dum proh dolor magna pars lectorum his distortionibus patienti silentio respondet. Oritur enim multitudo malorum usuum quos oportet, si non statim mutare cum omnes linguae natura mutent, saltem conscientia critica animadvertere. Cum novissima Latinitas iam multas undique innovationes semanticas ac stylisticas accipiat, ut maneat et supersit lingua intellectuali commercii auxilio secundum nostrae aetatis postulationes ac difficultates, ita innovationes semanticae necessariae nec vitandae sunt. Verum orthographica distortio ac confusio non est auxilio ad modernitatem neque ad veritatem. Hoc dicto incipiamus orationem medias in res:



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2. Duae sunt praecipuae usus traditiones – virgulae rhetoricae et virgulae synthaticae. Altera pausam in oratione naturalis indicat, i.e. pausam respirandi gratia cum oratio admodum longa est. Altera seiungit elementa synthatica ubicumque sunt, e.g. initium orationis subordinatae indicat etsi plena sententia brevis est. Virgula synthatica: Curavi, ne quis metuerit Catilinam (Mur 37.79). Dum usus synthaticus Theodisce praevalet1, usus modo rhetoricus imprimis Romanicus est. Attamen: Usus synthaticus incongruens ac supervacaneus est, ut per principia et exempla demonstrabo.

3. Sed antequam id faciam necesse est quaestiones formales videre, nam dum studia grammatica modernarum linguarum cum speciali nomenclatura progressa sunt, grammatica Latina neglecta est et eius terminologia obsoleta, inepta ad hodiernas postulationes linguisticas. Verum novatam nomenclaturam criticam proponere scopum huius tractationis superarit – exponam potius mancum inventarium terminorum quos usurpare cupiam cum locutus ero de virgula.

Sunt enim: morphologia et syntaxis. Elementa morphologiae generalis sunt: nomen, verbum et particula. Elementa syntaxeos generalis sunt: phrasis, oratio et sententia. Nominis formae sunt: substantivum, adiectivum, pronomen, numerale, articulum (Graece etc.). Verbi formae sunt: finitivum, infinitivum, participium, gerundium, supinum. Particula sunt: adverbium, praepositio, iunctio, exclamatio. Elementa generalia orationis sunt: subiectum, obiectum, praedicatum, praedicativum, adiunctum. Orationis formae sunt: principalis et subordinata. Orationes subordinatae sunt: substantiva, adiectiva, adverbialis. Phrasis est primum elementum synthaticum: multi homines. Oratio est iunctio phraseon circa verbum: Multi homines hic sunt. Sententia est iunctio orationum: Multi homines hic sunt et illinc plures appropinquant.



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1. Sic Duden liber grammaticus normativus haud bene affirmat: “Das sogennante rhetorische Prinzip, durch Kommasetzung dei beim Sprechen entstehenden Pausen zu bezeichnen, spielt nur noch eine untergeordnete Rolle. Der grammatische Aufbau fordert zuweilen ein Komma, wo der oder die Redende keine Pause macht, und umgekehrt.” Duden 9, Richtiges und gutes Deutsch. Wörtbuch der sprachlichen Zweifelsfälle, 6ta edit., Manhemium: Bibliographisches Institut & F.A.Brockhaus AG 2007, p.512.


Primis terminis sic memoratis examinemus usum virgulae (1) in syntaxi sententiae, i.e. inter differentes orationes principales et subordinatas, deinde (2) in conventibus similium et postremo (3) in vocativo et appositione.


I. Syntaxis Sententiae

A. Oratio substantiva

4. Oratio subordinata est substantiva cum substantivi valorem habet. Quae oratio est principalis subiectum aut obiectum. Mos est quod inter subiectum et verbum, inter verbum et obiectum nulla virgula abhibetur: Milites adsunt. *Milites, adsunt. Habemus papam. *Habemus, papam. Similiter malus usus est seiungere virgula obiectum aut subiectum cum orationes sunt. Exempla videamus:

Oratio substantiva infinitiva

Cupit etiam novissimos libros legere.
*Cupit, etiam novissimos libros legere.

Dicuntur omnes illi consurrexisse. (NCI)
*Dicuntur, omnes illi consurrexisse.

Dicitur omnes illos consurrexisse. (ACI)
*Dicitur, omnes illos consurrexisse.



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Oratio substantiva finitiva [assertiva]

Huc accedebat quod Sulla exercitum habuerat. (Sal C.11.5)
*Huc accedebat, quod Sulla exercitum habuerat.

Praetereo quod Servilius Maelium occidit. (Cat. 1.1.3)
*Praetereo, quod Servilius Maelium occidit.

Nec aetas impedit quominus studia teneamus. (sen 17.60)
*Nec aetas impedit, quominus studia teneamus.

Non dubito quin salutem anteponas victoriae. (Lig 10.28)
*Non dubito, quin salutem anteponas victoriae.

Curavi ne quis metuerit Catilinam. (Mur 37.79)
*Curavi, ne quis metuerit Catilinam.

Statuunt ut decem milia hominum mittantur. (bg 7.21.2)
*Statuunt, ut decem milia hominum mittantur.



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Oratio substantiva [finitiva] interrogativa

Quaesierunt num se esset etiam mori prohibiturus. (tu 5.15.42)
*Quaesierunt, num se esset etiam mori prohibiturus.

Socrates quaesitus est nonne Archealaum beatum putaret. (tu 5.12.25)
*Socrates quaesitus est, nonne Archealaum beatum putaret.

Dubito an hunc primum ponam. (Nep 8.1.1)
*Dubito, an hunc primum ponam.

Consultabat utrum Romam proficisceretur an Capuam teneret. (At 16.8.3)
*Consultabat, utrum Romam proficisceretur an Capuam teneret.

5. Quamvis orationis positio in sententia liberior esse possit ubi virgula rhetorica recta est, haec exempla principium generale illustrant: Non decet virgulam obiectum nec subiectum a verbo seiungere. Nam omnes supra subordinatae sunt subiecta aut obiecta verbi principalis. Seiunctio per virgulam synthaticam Germanismus est, Theodisce regula generalis, quamquam etiam Theodisce malus usus est (cavete, editores Germani):

*Dazu kommt, dass Sulla Befehlshaber war.
*Sie befahlen, zehn tausend Soldaten zu schicken.
*Sie fragten, ob das Sterben auch verboten war.



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B. Oratio adiectiva [vel relativa]

6. Oratio subordinata est adiectiva cum adiectivi valorem habet. Quae oratio substantivum restringit aut explicat. Oratio restrictiva necessaria est ad sententiae sensum intellegendum, dum altera modo explicationem additam praebet. Itaque restrictiva est oratio [miles quem quaeris hic est], quod necessarium est indicare orantem non de quocumque milite loqui. Sed explicativa est oratio [milites, qui multi erant, cito advenerunt], quae non indicat necessariam restrictionem verum tantum explicationem addit. Sensus iam plenus est si dicitur [milites cito advenerunt]. Cum oratio explicativa est oportet rhetoricam virgulam adhibere ad explicationem additam indicandam: Virgulam rhetoricam, quia pausa quaedam substantivi explicationi antecedit. Cum autem oratio restrictiva est, virgula non est adhibenda, quod substantivi restrictio necessaria est ad plenam sententiam intelligendam.

Oratio adiectiva restrictiva:

Miles quem quaeris hic est.
*Miles, quem quaeris, hic est.

Oratio adiectiva explicativa:

Milites, qui multi erant, cito advenerunt.
*Milites qui multi erant cito advenerunt.



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C. Oratio adverbialis

7. Oratio subordinata adverbialis valorem adverbii habet. Quae potest esse temporalis, condicionalis, concessiva, finalis, consecutiva, causalis, comparativa. Principium generale est ne virgula seiungat adverbium de verbo: Bene vivis. Heri advenisti. *Bene, vivis. *Heri, advenisti. Idem valet cum oratio plena officium adverbii habet. Si tamen plena sententia propter multas vel longas orationes adverbiales ipsa nimie longa fit, licet profecto virgula uti rhetorica ut lector interdum respiret et naso et oculis, qui oculi etiam quadam pausa egent, exempli gratia:

[ Quantum potui pro populi virtute ac rei publicae suprema salute libenter feci coram omnibus, ne quisquam dicat me neglexisse officium. ]

8. Differentia notanda est inter iunctiones quae tum substantivae tum adverbiales sunt, nam tum nulla virgula egent tum virgulam petere possunt. Consideremus exempla:

Imperator rogavit ut milites acriter pugnarent. (ut/ne substantivum)
Imperator advenit[,] ut milies acriter pugnarent. (ut/ne adverbiale)

Imperator bene fecit quod milites suos advenit. (quod substantivum)
Milites bene pugnaverunt[,] quod imperator aderat. (quod adverbiale)



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D. Oratio reducta

9. Oratio subordinata plena aut reducta est. Plena ubi verbum formam personalem infecti vel perfecti habet. Reducta ubi forma personalis ad impersonalem reducitur. Formae impersonales sunt: infinitivum, participium, gerundium, supinum. Oratio reducta substantiva, relativa aut adverbialis est, et usus virgulae sequitur harum differentes regulas.

Reductio ad infinitivum

*Cupit quod etiam novissimos libros legit.
Cupit etiam novissimos libros legere.

Dicunt quod omnes illi consurrexerunt.
Dicunt omnes illos consurrexisse.
(oratio subordinata substantiva obiectiva reducta ad infinitivum [ACI])

Dicitur quod omnes illi consurrexerunt.
Dicuntur omnes illi consurrexisse.
(oratio subordinata substantiva subiectiva reducta ad infinitivum [NCI])



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Reductio ad participium

(oratio subordinata adverbialis reducta ad participium [abl. abs.])

Cum Tarquinius regnabat raptus Lucretiae accidit.
Tarquinio regnante raptus Lucretiae accidit.

Reductio ad gerundium

(oratio subordinata adiectiva modalis reducta ad gerundium)

Tyrannus eo modo regnabat quo innocentes interficiebat.
Tyrannus innocentes interficiendo regnabat.

Reductio ad supinum

(oratio subordinata adverbialis finalis reducta ad supinum)

Caesar milites mandavit ut Britanniam perlustrarent.
Caesar milites mandavit Britanniam perlustratum.

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Submissions

The Carolingian is open to submissions:





10. Orationes reductae, quoniam breviores sunt plenis formis correspondentibus, etiam rarius virgula rhetorica egent. Sunt autem exceptiones in quibus licet virgula synthatica uti ad inflectionum confusionem vitandam:

Regnante bono, populo maxime inservitur.
*Regnante bono populo maxime inservitur.


II. Conventus Similium

11. Casus sunt ubi similia elementa morphologica conveniunt. Praecipui conventus sunt: Nomen cum nomine, verbum cum verbo, iunctio cum iunctione. Usus virgulae a nonnullis condicionibus pendet nec facile sit regulam generalem praescribere. Praestantia quaedam stylistica postulat nulla virgula supervacanea sit, et eo principio ducente examinemus quomodo usus virgulae minimus assequatur.

A. Nomen cum nomine

12. Cum nomen iuxta nomen accidit, saepe enumerationem habemus aut asyndeton aut (poly)syndeton. Si membra enumerationis nominum numero aequalia sunt, virgula ne necessaria quidem est, quoniam etiam antiqui sine virgula enumerationem e contextu animadvertebant:

Romani Galli Germani aderant.
*Romani, Galli, Germani aderant.

[Rem publicam appetentes] primo industrios supplicos modicos esse.
*Primo industrios, supplicos, modicos esse (Sal Iug. 85, 1)



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13. Cum tamen enumerationis membra numero nominum differunt virgula grata est:

Nam Romani, intrepidi Galli, nonnulli incolumes Germani aderant.
*Nam Romani intrepidi Galli nonnulli incolumes Germani aderant.

14. Si iunctio adhibetur ad membra coordinanda, virgula quoque adhiberi potest. Iunctio tamen modo membrum cum membro coniungitur, dum elementa ipsius membri melius est praepositione iungere. Iunctio non iungit submembra ipsius membri:

[Romani], [Galli] et [Germani] aderant. (tria membra)
[Romani] et [Galli cum Germanis] aderant. (duo membra)
*[Romani], [Galli et Germani] aderant. (*duo membra)

15. Hoc modo indecens Anglicismus fuerit virgula cum iunctione uti (i.g. virgula Oxoniensi), quia iunctio iam indicat finem alterius membri et alterius initium nec possibile est elementa ut partes eiusdem membri intellegere. Scribitur enim:

Romani, Galli et Germani aderant.
*Romani, Galli, et Germani aderant.



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16. Virgula non est necesse uti, quod iunctio iam indicat Gallos et Germanos distincta membra esse. Verum si indicandum est Gallos et Germanos partes eiusdem membri enumerati esse, praepositio adhibeatur:

[Romani] et [Galli cum Germanis] aderant.
[Romani], [Galli cum Germanis] et [Graeci] aderant.
[Romani] et [Galli cum {Germanis Graecisque}] aderant.
[Romani] et [Galli cum {Germanis ac Graecis}] aderant.
[Romani], [Galli cum {Germanis ac Graecis}] et [Angli] aderant.

17. Si conventus nominum acciderit in conventu orationum, contextus rhetoricus decernet an virgula necessaria sit:

Cum habemus papam res se bene habent.
Regnante bono, populo inservitur. (virg. synthatica)
Quoniam novissimum praeclarum habemus imperatorem, res publica incolumis est. (virg. rhetorica)

B. Verbum cum verbo

18. Quamvis omnis verborum conventus etiam conventum orationum indicet, alii sunt conventus recti, alii obliqui. Recti sunt deliberatae actionum enumerationes vel coordinatio, quae sequuntur regulas nominis cum nomine. Conventus recti satis sunt exempla infra:



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Romani venerunt viderunt vicerunt.
*Romani venerunt, viderunt, vicerunt.

Romani venerunt, castra viderunt, ingentem hostium multitudinem vicerunt.
*Romani venerunt castra viderunt ingentem hostium multitudinem vicerunt.

Romani venerunt, viderunt castra, ingentem hostium multitudinem vicerunt.
Romani venerunt, castra viderunt, vicerunt ingentem hostium multitudinem.

19. Conventus est obliquus cum non oritur ex enumeratione, sed casu et fortuito conveniunt verbum subordinatae et verbum principalis orationis. Etiam hic oportet notare virgulam synthaticam non per se necessariam esse:

Roma cum pulchra sit allicit alienos.
*Roma cum pulchra sit, allicit alienos.

Caesar ne Divitiaci animum offenderet verebatur. (bg 1.19.2)
*Caesar ne Divitiaci animum offenderet, verebatur.

Nationes quae trans Rhenum incolebant mittebant nuntios ad Caesarem.
*Nationes quae trans Rhenum incolebant, mittebant nuntios ad Caesarem.

Si repudiasset dubitatis quin ei vis esset allata? (Sest 29.62)
*Si repudiasset, dubitatis quin ei vis esset allata?



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20. Sed virgulae rhetoricae possunt orationem additam seiungere si admodum longa est:

21. Etiam possunt adhiberi virgulae rhetoricae ad brevem singularem orationis partem gravius premendam:



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22. Si verbum auxiliare alius orationis tamquam etiam alius male intellegi potest, virgula synthatica scilicet grata est:



C. Iunctio cum iunctione

23. Interdum accidit conventus duarum iunctionum, cum oratio subordinata intercalatur in aliam statim incipientem. Oratio subordinata sic ab alia amplexa virgulis rhetoricis indicatur ubi longa est. Tamen conceptus longi subiectivus est, ita ut ambo possibilia sint:



15





24. Si autem conventus initio sententiae accidit et nihilominus virgulis rhetoricis uti vis, primam virgulam licet omittere, nam cum sententia demum incipit non adhuc est tempus respirationis pausae:



16







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25. Phaenomenon similare, saepe sententia cum adverbio iunctionali incipit:

...historiae amorem alienos allicere. Itaque Roma multos viatores accipit.
...vetus Imperium iam diu deesse. Verum historiae amor alienos allicit.

26. Ista cum tamen ita sint, Gallicismus fuerit virgula post adverbium uti, qui usus Fracogallice quidem singularem idiosyncratiam socio-linguisticam praebet sed linguae Latinae nihil interest:

Ainsi, Rome reçoit beaucoup de touristes.
Pourtant, l’amour de l’histoire attire des étrangers.
Certes, l’empire n’existe point non plus.

*Itaque, Roma multos viatores accipit.
*Verum, historiae amor alienos allicit.
*Profecto, Imperium iam non exsistit.


III. Vocativus et appositio

27. Usus universalis est vocativum rhetoricis virgulis amplexi, etiamsi oratio vel phrasis brevissima est:

Audite, Quirites, veritatem!
*Audite Quirites veritatem!



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28. Appositionem autem licet cum aut sine virgula rhetorica adhibere. Usus virgularum scilicet indolem magis explicativam phrasi addit, dum alioquin sensus est restrictivus:

Labienus optimus magister militum celerrime Graeciam advenerat.
= [Optimus magister militum Labienus celerrime Graeciam advenerat.]

Labienus, optimus magister militum, celerrime Graeciam advenerat.
= [Labienus, qui ceterum optimus magister militum erat, celerrime Graeciam advenerat.]


Exitus

29. Ergo duo adhuc sunt examinationis exitus, primum quod virgula synthatica non adhiberi debet nisi ad inflectionum confusionem vitandam, deinde quod etiam virgula rhetorica principium quoddam minini usus debet sequi. In singulis vidimus quod non decet virgulam subiectum aut obiectum a verbo seiungere, nec in orationis nec in sententiae syntaxi; quodque non omnes conventus similium virgula egent ad differentia membra separanda.

30. Quamvis non coner principiis ac regulis expositis universalem valorem attribuere, spero fore ut lectores animadvertant linguam Latinam usu virgulae critico egere nec satis esse usus regionales, i.e. communes in singulis sermonibus, caece pro norma ducere. Quoniam usus virgulae etiam movet cantum et modos linguarum, opus nobis est usu quaerendo Latinae linguae singulari, ne usus exemplo classico indigente mera imitatio sit Anglicanismorum Gallicismorum Germanismorum. Potius oportet linguam ab iis liberare ut oriatur magis originalis suique generis orthographia. Existimatione critica malorum usuum (saltem quod in me est) supra explanata, supra sunt etiam usus quos hodiernis editoribus linguae Latinae commendare velim.












© The Carolingian 2019, culture, arts, aesthetics.
Flat 7, 18 High Street, Petersfield, GU32 3JL, United Kingdom
carolingian[at]use.startmail.com






Folium V





Das Unternehmen
als Kulturträger

FÜR EINE HOLISTISCHE BETRIEBSWIRTSCHAFT

Georg Solz




Dass unternehmen1 ganz losgelöst von politischen realitäten existieren können ist eine illusion, in ihrer besten form eine heilsgeschichtliche utopie des liberalismus. gerade weil unternehmen eine positive, ja entscheidende rolle in demokratischen gesellschaften spielen können, wirkt sich eine selbstbesessene isolation unter dem vorwand der profitmaximierung demokratiegefährdend aus. die zeiten da man sozialistische hoffnungen zu predigen pflegte sind vorbei, mindestens vorerst, da die absolute diskreditierung des sozialismus und selbst eines abstrakteren dritten wegs durch die autoritären exzessen des ostens noch konkrete folgen haben. dem menschlichen bedürfnis etwas zu unternehmen um profit zu erzielen, kann man prinzipiell nichts entgegensetzen: freiheit umfasst die freiheit der wirtschaftlichen initiative. naiv ist es aber zu denken dass unternehmerische freiheit genug ist um demokratie zu retten und, umgekehrt, dass die freiheit des unternehmens keiner demokratie bedarf. das unternehmen ist eine aktive politische zelle. in China profitiert sie von der unterdrückung der massen, in Europa leidet sie unter dem autoritarismus populistischer regimen als ein atavistisches, heroisiertes bedürfnis nach post-(und wohl pseudo)-sozialistischer unterdrückung, nach einfachen lösungen durch grosse volkshelden. von der gesellschaftlichen haltung, von der inneren organisation des betriebs als fundamentaler mikroökonomischer zelle hängt letzten endes die erhaltung der demokratie ab.



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1. Dieser essay ist in karolingischer rechtschreibung verfasst. eine einleitung dazu finden Sie unter dem link http://greg-ory.org/archive7.html : Alle wörter sind gleich.


es ist zwar nachvollziehbar dass oft im wirtschaftsleben von profitmaximierung die rede ist, aber da die wirtschaft selbst ein phänomen ist das sich gesellschaftlich äussert, kann selbst das prinzip der gewinnmaximierung nicht ohne seine sozialen opportunitätskosten gedacht werden. in dem moment da der drang nach profitmaximierung die wirtschaftliche handlung von arbeitgebern und arbeitnehmern primär zu diktieren anfängt, entfremden sich beide elemente der arbeitskooperation als akteure eines gesellschaftlichen vertrags, denn die sorge die sie sonst dem wohlergehen der öffentlichen sache und der eigenen bildung widmeten, objektiviert sich nur noch in den wusch nach kapitalvermehrung, und gerade der verlust an kultur, bildung und bürgerlicher verantwortung der mit solcher entfremdung einhergeht, diese verluste sind die verheerenden opportunitätskosten der absoluten doktrin der profitmaximierung für das politische wohl einer demokratischen gesellschaft. das ökonomische paradoxon hier ist dass an den opportunitätskosten dieser politischen entfremdung nicht nur die demokratie, sondern auch die wirtschaftliche stabilität selbst zu grunde geht. betrachtet man die jetztigen politischen verhältnisse in Europa, lässt sich der schluss nicht vermeiden dass kein unternehmen es noch sich leisten kann, arbeitnehmer als die finanziell schwächere seite des arbeitvertrags als blosse belebte roboter zu betrachten.



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es ist selbstverständlich dass die stärkere seite die pflicht hat, auch die intellektuellen bedürfnisse des arbeitnehmers zu integrieren und denen rechnung zu tragen, und dies nicht als gönnerhafte gunst, sondern als bewusste politik der selbsterhaltung – damit nicht alle vier jahre ein volksheld auftritt und mit menschenverachtenden versprechen die wahlen und das land für sich gewinnt. diese szenarien, diese nunmehr täglichen niederlagen der demokratie, des rechtsstaates und der menschenrechte werden ermöglicht, ja gefördert durch eine allzu begrenzte praxis der betriebswirtschaft in der das individuum, einmal auf die stufe des arbeitnehmers reduziert, nur noch relavant ist insofern als es etwas leisten kann. das ist aber nur die hälfte der wahrheit. das konzept von leistungsgesellschaft ist nur tragfähig wenn es sich von dem einer bildungsgesellschaft ergänzen lässt.

jeder arbeitsvertrag ist eine zusammenfassung des gesellschaftsvertrags, und das paradoxon der leistungsgesellschaft ist dass derjenige der leistet stets in einer schwächeren position ist als derjenige für den die leistung erbracht wird – weil ersterer mehr von seiner zeit aufgeben muss um die arbeit zu verrichten, und in diesem gesellschaftlich gezwungenen verzicht auf die bürgerliche musse verzichtet er auch grossenteils auf die eigene bildung, wobei nicht nur schulische oder höhere bildung hier gemeint ist, sondern auch die lebenslange bildung (auch die politische) eines gewissenhaften bürgers, welche im falle eines vollzeitbeschäftigten je nach der intensität der beschäftigung nur noch eine unvollständige ist.



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Aristoteles und seine zeitgenossen legten es in aller bitterkeit dar: frei ist nur der bürger der einer vollständigen musse frönen kann, der keine arbeit verrichten muss und will, der für die belange des gemeinwesens stets zur verfügung ist und sich keine sorge um seinen lebensunterhalt machen muss – weil er genug sklaven hat. es ist also nicht überraschend dass Aristoteles solch einen bürger als vulgär bezeichnet2 wenn er trotz seiner durch sklavenarbeit bewährten stabilität noch weiter versucht sein eigentum mittels entlohnter arbeit zu vermehren. arbeitslosigkeit galt überhaupt als voraussetzung für bürgerliche tugend, ja als tugend selbst. aber unzulässig ist die annahme dass die bürgerliche freiheit des arbeitsvertraglich stärkeren auf der arbeit des schwächeren beruhen soll, der dafür seine freiheit aufgeben muss. bürgerliche freiheit im antiken sinne ist unmöglich, aber gesellschaftliche aufklärung als freiheitliche gesinnung ist möglich, und hier können arbeitgeber und unternehmen auch im eigenen interesse dafür sorgen dass arbeitnehmer als die schwächere seite des vertrags von strukturell benachteiligten objekten nicht gänzlich zu kulturellen und intellektuellen verlierern werden, zu labilen politischen puppen in den händen antidemokratischer populisten. in England leidet jetzt ein grossteil der unternehmen unter der entscheidung der – man möchte fast sagen – völkisch-ideologisch betrogenen, einem vorgeschmack der chinesischen verhältnisse die Europa einnehmen werden wenn unternehmer denken, eine gesunde betriebswirtschaft könne unter jedem politischen system gedeihen, und gewinnmaximierung sei auch akzeptabel wenn ein korrupter autoritärer staat über geschäfte mitentscheidet.



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2. “So nennen wir jede kunst und fertigkeit vulgär die den körperlichen zustand degradiert, wie auch alle bezahlten tätigkeiten, denn sie beschäftigen und verderben den geist.” Politikon, Buch VIII, 1337b, eigene übersetzung.


wir brauchen eine ambitioniertere betriebswirtschaft, eine die die intellektuellen, kulturellen, gesellschaftlichen und politischen nachteile für die schwächere seite des arbeitsvertrags durch eine proaktive investition in die freie bildung des arbeitnehmers zu kompensieren weiss, in der also der gesamtperson des arbeitnehmers rechnung getragen wird. von zukunftsmusik ist das weit entfernt, im gegenteil, das modell eines holistischen betriebs findet seine inspiration in einem recht alten: das des ursprünglichen klosters, einst der einzigen gängigen wirtschaftszelle nach dem zusammenbruch der antiken gesellschaftsordnung – denn unabhängig von seiner ideologischen, eschatologischer, ja heilsgeschitlichen dimension und deutung ist diese art gemeinschaft eine holistische sozial-wirtschaftszelle – es spielt keine rolle ob die mitglieder christen, atheisten oder anarchisten sind. wichtig ist: dort wird etwas erwirtschaftet, dort wird zum teil zusammen gelebt, dort wird jedem die gelegenheit gegeben sich allein oder in gruppen zu bilden. eine gewisse unternehmerische kreativität ist natürlich gefragt um alte strukturen in die jetzige realität zu übersetzen, aber statt an eine gesamte umwandlung zu denken ist es genügend sich erste schritte einer kritischen annähreung zu überlegen. die wichtigste zu suchende gemeinsamkeit ist jene der drei holistischen säulen: wirtschafliches leben, gesellschaftliches leben, intellektuelles leben. die erste säule verkörpert sich in der entlohnten arbeit die es dem arbeitnehmer ermöglicht sein leben zu bestreiten.

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gesellschaftliches leben wird geboten indem der arbeitsort zu einem ort der zwischenmenschlichen begegnung jenseits des arbeitsvertrags wird. im kloster wird zusammengegessen, und jedes seriöse unternehmen sollte nicht nur die entlohnung, sondern auch die verpflegung seiner arbeitnehmer als vertragliche pflicht verankern, auch wenn die kosten der verpflegung die löhne senkten. das ist eine moralische frage. natürlich kann der arbeitnehmer mit seinem gehalt sein eigenes essen kaufen. aber wann denn? wer den ganzen tag arbeiten muss und erst abends essen kann, ruiniert seine gesundheit, und es ist nicht so dass die meisten dieses opfer erbringen weil sie vom wert ihrer arbeit überzeugt sind. sie werden durch ihre sozialen verhältnisse gezwungen jeden tag und den ganzen tag etwas zu leisten was sie nicht leisten würden wenn sie die freiheit eines altgriechischen bürgers hätten.

niemand ruiniert seine ernährung aus reinem idealismus. es ist eine frage der unternehmerischen sensibilität diese degradierung der ernährung und des zusammenspeisens als gesellschaflicher institution nicht zuzulassen. dass in jedem grossunternehmen küche, koch und speisesaal gehören haben giganten wie Google schon erkannt. man besuche nur das Berliner büro, in dem in jeder ecke sogar eine kleine küche zu finden ist – angestellte können sich frei bedienen (umweltbewusste mülltrennung kann auch nicht schaden). gleichzeitig speisen und arbeiten gehört auch nicht in einem holistischen betrieb: am mittag hört die arbeit auf und es wird gegessen, und zwar alle zusammen, no matter what – auf kosten des arbeitgebers, selbstverständlich. das ist die wichtigste zeit für freie sozialisierung am arbeitsplatz – frei bedeutet: es wird sich nicht über arbeit unterhalten. dass der arbeitgeber auch die verpflegung zur verfügung stellt fördert die motivation und das wohlergehen der arbeitnehmer. es ist die grundsätzliche anerkennung der an sich nicht selbstverständlichen leistung derer die ihre zeit für die gemeinsame leistung aufbringen. das erleichtert selbst die persönliche tagesordnung: wer schon stattlich gegessen hat braucht nicht einen grossteil der ihm wenigen verbleibenden freien stunden am tag noch zusätzlich mit lebensmitteleinkauf und essenszubereitung zu verbringen. bleibt sonst noch zeit für das intellektuelle leben?



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es gehört zu den impliziten opportunitätskosten des arbeitsvertrags zu lasten des arbeitnehmers dass bezahlte arbeitsstunden auch mit unbezahlten arbeitsbezogenen reststunden verbunden sind. damit sind noch gar nicht extra stunden gemeint. zu den – man sollte sagen: abfallstunden, aber waste hours klingt vielleicht besser – gehört die lokomotionszeit von haustür zu arbeitsplatztür, selbstverständlich mal zwei: an- und rückfahrt. wer nur die strasse überqueren muss und schon am arbeitsplatz ist kann sich nicht beschweren, aber der durchschnitt in den gross-städten, da die meisten grossunternehmen sind, ist eine stunde von tür zu tür. für einen arbeitstag von acht oder sechs stunden sind zwei weitere unbezahlte stunden zusätzlich verloren, und zwar in jeder hinsicht. beim rad- oder autofahren, in den öffentlichen verkehrsmitteln, nirgends auf dem weg zur arbeit kann man sich recht konzentrieren für einen produktiven und intellektuell erfüllenden zweck. zur lokomotionszeit kommt die entstellte verpflegungszeit, und zwar entstellt aus dem grunde weil ernährung zum blossen anhang des normales arbeitstages herabdegradiert wird, dazu noch zu ungesunden uhrzeiten. somit sind eine oder zwei weitere stunden zu den waste hours hinzuzufügen.

deswegen ist eine holistische betriebswirtschaft der kompensierung sinnvoll. kompensierung beginnt mit anerkennung für diejenigen die ihre ganze tagesordnung zu lasten der eigenen körperlichen und geistigen gesundheit für das profitprogramm des unternehmens umstellen müssen. die praktische durchführung akkommodiert also die gesamte person: neben dem gemeinsamen speisen gehört ein wellness-angebot, auch ohne hohe kosten möglich – ein raum für meditation kostet nicht viel. eine stunde vor oder nach der arbeit steht dieser raum der entspannung und seine materialien zur meditation zur verfügung aller mitarbeiter.



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die dritte holistische säule des betriebslebens ist die intellektuelle: in jedem unternehmen gehört eine bibliothek. es mag sein dass kleinunternehmer, die sich noch stets bemühen um profit und überleben, sich die umsetzung dieses vitalen prinzips nicht leisten können – aber grosse unternehmen schon, und diese kohorte von Volkswagen, Daimler, Allianz, BMW, Siemens, Bosch, Telekom, Bayer, Lufthansa & Co. (überhaupt wer schon mehr als hundert arbeitnehmer beschäftigt) ist auch die mit der grössten gesellschaftlichen verantwortung. eine kritische bibliothek in jedem betrieb oder fabrik innerhalb oder ausserhalb Deutschlands, ein differenziertes kulturangebot mit zugang zu anspruchsvollem kino, theater und oper, eine ambitionierte investition in die freie bildung von arbeitnehmern ist die seriöseste kompensation für die gesellschaftlich inhärenten schwächen des arbeitsvertrags und zugleich die ultimative rettung des freiheitlich demokratischen geistes, den diese unternehmen benötigen um mit stabilität und integrität zu überleben statt sich zu blinden mithelfern und opfern von autoritarismus und genozid zu machen. der Holocaust zeigt in der kooperation zwischen regime und grossunternehmen dass so ein menschenverachtendes überlebensmodell durchaus möglich ist und trotzdem keine menschenrechtliche option darstellt. holistische betriebswirtschaft darf die schwächere seite des arbeitsvertrags nicht als blosse arbeitskraft betrachten – arbeitskraft ist auch das pferd –, sondern als gesamtpersonen deren intellektuelle bedürfnisse auch betriebswirtschaftlich zu berücksichtgen sind, wenn sie durch ihre arbeit und überarbeit nicht zu populistenfutter, ja zu politisch bevollmächtigten pferden zu lasten der demokratie und der menschlichkeit sich herabdegradieren sollen.



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die bibliothek ist die erste intellektuelle selbstverständlichkeit, ob nur materiell oder auch digital – und zwar eine stätte nicht von boulevardpresse und unterhaltungsliteratur, sondern von wissenschaftlichkeit und kritischem denken. oft haben mitarbeiter eine akademische laufbahn hinter sich, und auch wenn das unternehmen keine berufliche kontinuität in spezifischen bereichen bietet, kann es natürlich den rahmen für intellektuelle kontinuität bieten durch eine mannigfaltige bibliothek. zu diesem rahmen gehören auch bezahlte bildungsstunden: pro arbeitstag hat jeder mitarbeiter anspruch auf eine bezahlte bildungs- und lektürenstunde in der bibliothek. da kann es vorkommen dass mitarbeiter die ursprünglich aus anderen gebieten kommen im umgang mit fachspezifischer literatur in der lage sind privat und frei zu forschen, und sogar wissenschaftliche artikel zu veröffentlichen – was auch eine positive wirkung auf das öffentliche bild des unternehmens als eines freien förderers hat. auch der staat könnte eine konsequentere rolle spielen und das engagement holistischer unternehmen mit gewissen steuerlichen entlastungen würdigen.

die isolierende betriebswirtschaftspraxis, die vorstellung dass betriebe sich nur um ihr eigenes geschäft kümmern müssen damit gesellschaftliche kohäsion und politische kohärenz entstehen und sich halten, ist sowohl naiv als auch gefährlich. sie fördert anti-liberale entfremdung in zeiten da sie globalen problemen mit einem kritischen liberalismus begegnen sollte. natürlich spielt arbeits- oder perspektivlosigkeit eine zentrale rolle beim jetztigen triumpzug des populismus und seiner allversprechenden volkshelden. jedoch wird die situation durch eine isolierende betriebswirtschaft insofern aggraviert als betriebe sich in mechanismen der massenentfremdung verwandeln: nach der arbeit bleibt dem mitarbeiter nur noch zeit nach hause zu fahren, zu essen und zu schlafen. für diese demokratiezersetzende unkultiviertheit des geistes, der ja demokratie kritisch aufbauen sollte, ist der arbeitgeber und seine betriebswirtschaftspraxis mitverantwortlich. der fehler vieler gesellschaftskritiker liegt aber in der behauptung, die betriebswirtschaft sei per se eine fabrik der entfremdeten unkultiviertheit. sie unterschätzen die flexibilität und das potenzial der heutigen betriebswirtschaft. das problem besteht vielmehr im selbstzweifel der betriebe – in ihrer unfähigkeit das eigene freiheitliche potenzial zu erkennen.












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Bibliotheca Carolingia Folium VI





Capitulare de Villis
vel Curtis Imperii

AGRICULTURA ET ADMINISTRATIO
TERRITORIORUM REGALIUM

Carolus Magnus




Volumus1 ut villae nostrae, quas ad opus nostrum serviendi institutas habemus, sub integritate partibus nostris deserviant et non aliis hominibus.

2. Ut familia nostra bene conservata sit et a nemine in paupertate missa.

3. Ut non praesumant iudices nostram familiam in eorum servitium ponere, non corvadas non materia cedere nec aliud opus sibi facere cogant, et neque ulla dona ab ipsis accipiant, non caballum non bovem non vaccam non porcum non berbicem non porcellum non agnellum nec aliam causam, nisi buticulas et ortum, poma, pullos et ova.

4. Si familia nostra partibus nostris aliquam fecerit fraudem de latrocinio aut alio neglecto, illud in caput conponat; de reliquo vero pro lege recipiat disciplinam vapulando, nisi tantum pro homicidio et incendio, unde frauda exire potest. Ad reliquos autem homines iustitiam eorum, qualem habuerint, reddere studeant, sicut lex est; pro frauda a vero nostra, ut diximus, familia vapuletur. Franci autem qui in fiscis aut villis nostris commanent, quicquid commiserint, secundum legem eorum emendare studeant, et quod pro frauda dederint, ad opus nostrum veniat, id est in peculio aut in alio praetio.



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1. Critica editio reperitur apud Monumenta Germanie Historica: MGH – Capitularia regum Francorum 1, ed. ab Alfred Boretio (1883) p.82ss (interrete http://www.mgh.de/dmgh/resolving/MGH_Capit._1_S._82).


5. Quando iudices nostri labores nostros facere debent, seminare aut arare, messes colligere, fenum secare aut vindeamiare, unusquisque in tempore laboris ad unumquemque locum praevideat ac instituere faciat quomodo factum sit, ut bene salva sint. Si intra patriam non fuerit et in quale loco iudex venire non potuerit, missum bonum de familia nostra aut alium hominem bene creditum causas nostras providendi dirigat, qualiter ad profectum veniant; et iudex diligenter praevideat, ut fidelem hominem transmittat ad hanc causam providendam.

6. Volumus ut iudices nostri decimam ex omni conlaboratu pleniter donent ad ecclesias quae sunt in nostris fiscis, et ad alterius ecclesiam nostra decima data non fiat, nisi ubi antiquitus institutum fuit. Et non alii clerici habeant ipsas ecclesias, nisi nostri aut de familia aut de capella nostra.

7. Ut unusquisque iudex suum servitium pleniter perficiat, sicut ei fuerit denuntiatum ; et si necessitas evenerit quod plus servire debeat, tunc conputare faciat si servitium debeat multiplicare vel noctes.

8. Ut iudices nostri vineas recipiant nostras, quae de eorum sunt ministerio, et bene eas faciant et ipsum vinum in bona mittant vascula et diligenter praevidere faciant, quod nullo modo naufragatum sit; aliud e vero vinum e peculiare conparando emere faciant, unde villas dominicas condirigere possint. Et quandoquidem plus de ipso vino conparatum fuerit quod ad villas nostras condirigendum mittendi opus sit, nobis innotescat, ut nos commendemus qualiter nostra fuerit exinde voluntas. Cippaticos enim de vineis nostris ad opus nostrum mittere faciant. Censa de villis nostris qui vinum debent, in cellaria nostra mittat.



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9. Volumus ut unusquisque iudex in suo ministerio mensuram modiorum, sextariorum – et situlas per sextaria octo – et corborum eo tenore habeant sicut et in palatio habemus.

10. Ut maiores nostri et forestarii, poledrarii, cellerarii, decani, telonarii vel ceteri ministeriales rega faciant et sogales donent de mansis eorum, pro manuopera vero eorum ministeria bene praevideant. Et qualiscumque maior habuerit beneficium, suum vicarium mittere faciat, qualiter et manuopera et ceterum servitium pro eo adimplere debeat.

11. Ut nullus iudex mansionaticos ad suum opus nec ad suos canes super homines nostros atque in forestes nullatenus prendant.

12. Ut nullus iudex obsidem nostrum in villa nostra commendare faciat.

13. Ut equos emissarios, id est waraniones, bene praevideant et nullatenus eos in uno loco diu stare permittant, ne forte pro hoc pereat. Et si aliquis talis est, quod bonus non sit aut veteranus sit, si vero mortuus fuerit, nobis nuntiare faciant tempore congruo, antequam tempus veniat ut inter iumenta mitti debeant.

14. Ut iumenta nostra bene custodiant et poledros ad tempus segregent; et si pultrellae multiplicatae fuerint, separatae fiant et gregem per se exinde adunare faciant.



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15. Ut poledros nostros missa sancti Martini hiemale ad palatium omnimodis habeant.

16. Volumus ut quicquid nos aut regina unicuique iudici ordinaverimus aut ministeriales nostri, sinescalcus et butticularius, de verbo nostro aut reginae ipsis iudicibus ordinaverit, ad eundem placitum sicut eis institutum fuerit impletum habeant; et quicumque per neglegentiam dimiserit, a potu se abstineat postquam ei nuntiatum fuerit, usque dum in praesentia nostra aut reginae veniat et a nobis licentiam quaerat absolvendi. Et si iudex in exercitu aut in wacta seu in ambasiato vel aliubi fuerit et iunioribus eius aliquid ordinatum fuerit et non conpleverint, tunc ipsi pedestres ad palatium veniant et a potu vel carne se abstineant, interim quod rationes deducant propter quod hoc dimiserunt; et tunc recipiant sententiam, aut in dorso aut quomodo nobis vel reginae placuerit.

17. Quantascumque villas unusquisque in ministerio habuerit, tantos habeat deputatos homines qui apes ad nostrum opus praevideant.

18. Ut ad farinarias nostras pullos et aucas habeant iuxta qualitatem farinarii vel quantum melius potuerint.

19. Ad scuras nostras in villis capitaneis pullos habeant non minus C et aucas non minus XXX, ad mansioniles vero pullos habeant non minus L, aucas non minus quam XII.



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20. Unusquisque iudex fructa semper habundanter faciat omni anno ad curtem venire, excepto visitationes eorum per vices tres aut quattuor seu amplius dirigant.

21. Vivarios in curtes nostras unusquisque iudex ubi antea fuerunt habeat, et si augeri potest, augeat; et ubi antea non fuerunt et modo esse possunt, noviter fiant.

22. Coronas de racemis, qui vineas habuerint non minus tres aut quattuor habeant.

23. In unaquaeque villa nostra habeant iudices vaccaritias, porcaritias, berbicaritias, capraritias, hircaritias quantum plus potuerint et nullatenus sine hoc esse debent. Et insuper habeant vaccas ad illorum servitium perficiendum commendatas per servos nostros, qualiter pro servitio ad dominicum opus vaccaritiae vel carrucae nullo modo minoratae sint. Et habeant, quando servierint ad carnes dandum, boves cloppos non languidos et vaccas sive caballos non scabiosos aut alia peccora non languida. Et ut diximus, pro hoc vaccaritias vel carrucas non minorent.

24. Quicquid ad discum nostrum dare debet, unusquisque iudex in sua habeat plebio, qualiter bona et optima atque bene studiose et nitide omnia sint conposita quicquid dederint. Et unusquisque II habeat de annona pastos per singulos dies ad suum servitium, ad mensam nostram quando servierit; et reliqua dispensa similiter in omnibus bona sit, tam farina quam et peculium.



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25. De pastione autem Kal. Septemb. indicare faciant, si fuerit an non.

26. Maiores vero amplius in ministerio non habeant nisi quantum in una die circumire aut previdere potuerint.

27. Casae nostrae indesinenter foca et wactas habeant, ita ut salvae sint. Et quando missi vel legatio ad palatium veniunt vel redeunt, nullo modo in curtes dominicas mansionaticas prendant, nisi specialiter iussio nostra aut reginae fuerit. Et comes de suo ministerio vel homines illi qui antiquitus consueti fuerunt missos aut legationes soniare, ita et modo inantea et de parveridis et omnia eis necessaria solito more soniare faciant, qualiter bene et honorifice ad palatium venire vel redire possint.

28. Volumus ut per annos singulos intra quadragesima, dominica in palmis quae Osanna dicitur, iuxta ordinationem nostram argentum de nostro laboratu, postquam cognoverimus de praesenti anno quantum sit nostra laboratio, deferre studeant.

29. De clamatoribus ex hominibus nostris unusquisque iudex praevideat, ut non sit eis necesse venire ad nos proclamare et dies quos servire debet per neglegentiam non dimittat perdere. Et si habuerit servus noster forinsecus iustitias ad querendum, magister eius cum omni intentione decertet pro eius iustitia; et si aliquo loco minime eam accipere valuerit, tamen ipso servo nostro pro hoc fatigare non permittat, sed magister eius per semetipsum aut suum missum hoc nobis notum facere studeat.



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30. Volumus unde servire debent ad opus nostrum, ex omni conlaboratu eorum servitium segregare faciant, et unde carra in hostem carigare debent, similiter segregent, tam per domos quam et per pastores, et sciant quantum ad hoc mittunt.

31. Ut hoc quod ad provendarios vel genitias dare debent simili modo uno quoque anno separare faciant et tempore oportuno pleniter donent et nobis dicere sciant, qualiter inde faciunt vel unde exit.

32. Ut unusquisque iudex praevideat, quomodo sementem bonum et optimum semper de conparatu vel aliunde habeat.

33. Post ista omnia segregata et seminata atque peracta, quicquid reliquum fuerit exinde de omni conlaboratu usque ad verbum nostrum salvetur, quatenus secundum iussionem nostram aut venundetur aut servetur.

34. Omnino praevidendum est cum omni diligentia, ut quicquid manibus laboraverint aut fecerint, id est lardum, siccamen, sulcia, niusaltus, vinum, acetum, moratum, vinum coctum, garum, sinape, formaticum, butirum, bracios, cervisas, medum, mel, ceram, farinam, omnia cum summo nitore sint facta vel parata.

35. Volumus ut de berbicibus crassis soccia fiat sicut et de porcis; et insuper habeant boves saginatos in unaquaeque villa non minus quam duos aut ibidem ad socciandum aut ad nos deducendum.

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36. Ut silvae vel forestes nostrae bene sint custoditae; et ubi locus fuerit ad stirpandum, stirpare faciant et campos de silva increscere non permittant; et ubi silvae debent esse, non eas permittant nimis capulare atque damnare; et feramina nostra intra forestes bene custodiant; similiter acceptores et spervarios ad nostrum profectum praevideant; et censa nostra exinde diligenter exactent. Et iudices, si eorum porcos ad saginandum in silvam nostram miserint vel maiores nostri aut homines eorum, ipsi primi illam decimam donent ad exemplum bonum proferendum, qualiter in postmodum ceteri homines illorum decimam pleniter persolvent.

37. Ut campos et culturas nostras bene conponant et prata nostra ad tempus custodiant.

38. Ut aucas pastas et pullos pastos ad opus nostrum semper, quando servire debent aut ad nos transmittere, sufficienter habeant.

39. Volumus ut pullos et ova quos servientes vel mansuarii reddunt per singulos annos, recipere debeant; et quando non servierint, ipsos venundare faciant.

40. Ut unusquisque iudex pervillas nostras singulares etlehas, pavones, fasianos, enecas, columbas, perdices, turtures pro dignitatis causa omnimodis semper habeant.



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41. Ut aedificia intra curtes nostras vel sepes in circuitu bene sint custoditae, et stabula vel coquinae utque pistrina seu torcularia studiose praeparatae fiant, quatenus ibidem condigne ministeriales nostri officia eorum bene nitide peragere possint.

42. Ut unaquaeque villa intra cameram lectaria, culcitas, plumatios, batlinias, drappos ad discum, bancales, vasa aerea, plumbea, ferrea, lignea, andedos, catenas, cramaculos, dolaturas, secures id est cuniadas, terebros id est taradros, scalpros vel omnia utensilia ibidem habeant, ita ut non sit necesse aliubi hoc quaerere aut commodare. Et ferramenta, quod in hostem ducunt, in eorum habeant plebio qualiter bona sint et iterum quando revertuntur in camera mittantur.

43. Ad genitia nostra, sicut institutum est, opera ad tempus dare faciant, id est linum, lanam, waisdo, vermiculo, warentia, pectinos laninas, cardones, saponem, unctum, vascula vel reliqua minutia quae ibidem necessaria sunt.

44. De quadragesimale duae partes ad servitium nostrum veniant per singulos annos, tam de leguminibus quamque et de piscato seu formatico, butirum, mel, sinape, aceto , milio, panicio, herbulas siccas vel virides, radices, napos insuper, et ceram vel saponem atque cetera minutia; et quod reliquum fuerit nobis per brevem, sicut supra diximus, innotescant et nullatenus hoc praetermittant, sicut usque nunc fecerunt, quia per illas duas partes volumus cognoscere de illa tertia quae remansit.



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45. Ut unusquisque iudex in suo ministerio bonos habeat artifices, id est fabros ferrarios et aurifices vel argentarios, sutores, tornatores, carpentarios, scutarios, piscatores, aucipites id est aucellatores, saponarios, siceratores, id est qui cervisam vel pomatium sive piratium vel aliud quodcumque liquamen ad bibendum aptum fuerit facere sciant, pistores, qui similam ad opus nostrum faciant, retiatores qui retia facere bene sciant, tam ad venandum quam ad piscandum sive ad aves capiendum, necnon et reliquos ministeriales quos ad numerandum longum est.

46. Ut lucos nostros, quos vulgus brogilos vocat, bene custodire faciant et ad tempus semper emendent et nullatenus exspectent, ut necesse sit a novo reaedificare. Similiter faciant et de omni aedificio.

47. Ut venatores nostri et falconarii vel reliqui ministeriales, qui nobis in palatio adsidue deserviunt, consilium in villis nostris habeant, secundum quod nos aut regina per litteras nostras iusserimus, quando ad aliquam utilitatem nostram eos miserimus, aut siniscalcus et buticalarius de nostro verbo eis aliquid facere praeceperint.

48. Ut torcularia in villis nostris bene sint praeparata; et hoc praevideant iudices, ut vindemia nostra nullus pedibus praemere praesumat sed omnia nitida et honesta sint.

49. Ut genitia nostra bene sint ordinata, id est de casis, pislis, teguriis id est screonis; et sepes bonas in circuitu habeant et portas firmas qualiter opera nostra bene peragere valeant.



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50. Ut unusquisque iudex praevideat, quanti poledri in uno stabulo stare debeant et quanti poledrarii cum ipsis esse possint. Et ipsi poledrarii qui liberi sunt et in ipso ministerio beneficia habuerint de illorum vivant beneficiis; similiter et fiscalini qui mansas habuerint inde vivant, et qui hoc non habuerit, de dominica accipiat provendam.

51. Praevideat unusquisque iudex, ut sementia nostra nullatenus pravi homines subtus terram vel aliubi abscondere possint et propter hoc messis rarior fiat. Similiter et de aliis maleficiis illos praevideant, ne aliquando facere possint.

52. Volumus ut de fiscalis vel servis nostris sive de ingenuis qui per fiscos aut villas nostras commanent diversis hominibus plenam et integram, qualem habuerint, reddere faciant iustitiam.

53. Ut unusquisque iudex praevideat, qualiter homines nostri de eorum ministerio latrones vel malefici nullo modo esse possint.

54. Ut unusquisque iudex praevideat, quatenus familia nostra ad eorum opus bene laboret et per mercata vacando non eat.

55. Volumus ut quicquid ad nostrum opus iudices dederint vel servierint aut sequestraverint, in uno breve conscribi faciant, et quicquid dispensaverint, in alio; et quod reliquum fuerit, nobis per brevem innotescant.

56. Ut unusquisque iudex in eorum ministerio frequentius audientias teneat et iustitiam faciat et praevideat qualiter recte familiae nostrae vivant.



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57. Si aliquis ex servis nostris super magistrum suum nobis de causa nostra aliquid vellet dicere, vias ei ad nos veniendi non contradicat. Et si iudex cognoverit, quod iuniores illius adversus eum ad palatium proclamando venire velint, tunc ipse iudex contra eos rationes deducendi ad palatium venire faciat, qualiter eorum proclamatio in auribus nostris fastidium non generet. Et sic volumus cognoscere, utrum ex necessitate an ex occansione veniant.

58. Quando catelli nostri iudicibus commendati fuerint ad nutriendum, ipse iudex de suo eos nutriat aut iunioribus suis, id est maioribus et decanis vel cellerariis ipsos commendare faciat, quatenus de illorum causa eos bene nutrire faciant, nisi forte iussio nostra aut reginae fuerit, ut in villa nostra ex nostro eos nutriant; et tunc ipse iudex hominem ad hoc opus mittat qui ipsos bene nutriat, et segreget unde nutriantur, et non sit illi homini cotidie necessitas ad scuras recurrere.

59. Unusquisque iudex quando servierit per singulos dies dare faciat de cera libras III, de sapone sextaria VIII, et super hoc ad festivitatem sancti Andreae, ubicumque cum familia nostra fuerimus, dare studeat de cera libras VI; similiter mediante quadragesima.

60. Nequaquam de potentioribus hominibus maiores fiant, sed de mediocribus qui fideles sint.

61. Ut unusquisque iudex quando servierit suos bracios ad palatium ducere faciat; et simul veniant magistri qui cervisam bonam ibidem facere debeant.



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62. Ut unusquisque iudex per singulos annos ex omni conlaboratione nostra quam cum bubus quos bubulci nostri servant, quid de mansis qui arare debent, quid de sogalibus , quid de censis, quid de fide facta vel freda, quid de feraminibus in forestis nostris sine nostro permisso captis, quid de diversis conpositionibus, quid de molinis, quid de forestibus, quid de campis, quid de pontibus vel navibus, quid de liberis hominibus et centenis qui partibus fisci nostri deserviunt, quid de mercatis, quid de vineis, quid de illis qui vinum solvunt, quid de feno, quid de lignariis et faculis, quid de axilis vel aliud materiamen, quid de proterariis, quid de leguminibus, quid de milio et panigo, quid de lana, lino vel canava, quid de frugibus arborum, quid de nucibus maioribus vel minoribus, quid de insitis ex diversis arboribus, quid de hortis, quid de napibus, quid de wiwariis, quid de coriis, quid de pellibus, quid de cornibus, quid de melle et cera, quid de uncto et siu vel sapone, quid de morato, vino cocto, medo et aceto, quid de cervisa, de vino novo et vetere, de annona nova et vetere, quid de pullis et ovis vel anseribus id est aucas, quid de piscatoribus, de fabris, de scutariis vel sutoribus; quid de huticis et confinis id est scriniis, quid de torna toribus vel sellariis, de ferrariis et scrobis, id est fossis ferrariciis vel aliis fossis plumbariciis, quid de tributariis, quid de poledris et pultrellis habuerint – omnia seposita, distincta et ordinata ad nativitatem Domini nobis notum faciant, ut scire valeamus quid vel quantum de singulis rebus habeamus.

63. De his omnibus supradictis nequaquam iudicibus nostris asperum videatur si hoc requirimus; quia volumus ut et ipsi simili modo iunioribus eorum omnia absque ulla indignatione requirere studeant, et omnia quicquid homo in domo sua vel in villis suis habere debet, iudices nostri in villis nostris habere debeant.



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64. Ut carra nostra quae in hostem pergunt basternae bene factae sint, et operculi bene sint cum coriis cooperti, et ita sint consuti, ut, si necessitas evenerit aquas ad natandum, cum ipsa expensa quae intus fuerit transire flumina possint, ut nequaquam aqua intus intrare valeat et bene salva causa nostra, sicut diximus, transire possit. Et hoc volumus, ut farina in unoquoque carro ad spensam nostram missa fiat, hoc est duodecim modia de farina; et in quibus vinum ducunt, modia XII ad nostrum modium mittant; et ad unumquodque carrum scutum et lanceam, cucurum et arcum habeant.

65. Ut pisces de wiwariis nostris venundentur et alii mittantur in locum, ita ut pisces semper habeant; tamen quando nos in villas non venimus, tunc fiant venundati et ipsos ad nostrum profectum iudices nostri conlucrare faciant.

66. De capris et hircis et eorum cornua et pellibus nobis rationes deducant, et per singulos annos niusaltos crassos nobis inde adducant.

67. De mansis absis et mancipiis adquisitis, si aliquid super se habuerint quod non habeant ubi eos collocare possint, nobis nuntiare faciant.

68. Volumus ut bonos barriclos ferro ligatos, quos in hostem et ad palatium mittere possint, iudices singuli praeparatos semper habeant, et buttes ex coriis non faciant.



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69. De lupis omni tempore nobis adnuntient, quantos unusquisque conpraehenderit et ipsas pelles nobis praesentare faciant; et in mense Maio illos lupellos perquirant et conpraehendant, tam cum pulvere et hamis quamque cum fossis et canibus.

70. Volumus quod in horto omnes herbas habeant: id est lilium, rosas, fenigrecum, costum, salviam, rutam, abrotanum, cucumeres, pepones, cucurbitas, fasiolum, ciminum, ros marinum, careium, cicerum italicum, squillam, gladiolum, dragantea, anesum, coloquentidas, solsequiam, ameum, silum, lactucas, git, eruca alba, nasturtium, parduna, puledium, olisatum, petresilinum, apium, levisticum, savinam, anetum, fenicolum, intubas, diptamnum, sinape, satureiam, sisimbrium, mentam, mentastrum, tanazitam, neptam, febrefugiam, papaver, betas, vulgigina, mismalvas, malvas, carvitas, pastenacas, adripias, blidas, ravacaulos, caulos, uniones, britlas, porros, radices, ascalonicas, cepas, alia, warentiam, cardones, fabas maiores, pisos Mauriscos, coriandrum, cerfolium, lacteridas, sclareiam. Et ille hortulanus habeat super domum suam Iovis barbam. De arboribus volumus quod habeant pomarios diversi generis, pirarios diversi generis, prunarios diversi generis, sorbarios, mespilarios, castanearios, persicarios diversi generis, cotoniarios, avellanarios, amandalarios, morarios, lauros, pinos, ficus, nucarios, ceresarios diversi generis. Malorum nomina: gozmaringa, geroldinga, crevedella, spirauca, dulcia, acriores, omnia servatoria; et subito comessura; primitiva. Perariciis servatoria trium et quartum genus, dulciores et cocciores et serotina.

Explicit capitulare dominicum.












© The Carolingian 2019, culture, arts, aesthetics.
Flat 7, 18 High Street, Petersfield, GU32 3JL, United Kingdom
carolingian[at]use.startmail.com






Folium VII





Æsthetics of Reading Pages

FOR AN ENHANCED
READING EXPERIENCE ONLINE

Gregory Name




A reading page is a web-page designed to provide an enhanced reading experience. Its impact will depend on how it deals with two material obstacles:

The implications are serious. Being bad for the eyes, screens are not the best medium for long elaborated texts. You may use amber static lens to block blue light, yet the effectiveness is debatable. At one point, your eyes will grow tired. Reading on paper, they can cope much longer.

Horizontal screens make a weird contrast to the classical paper page, always vertical. The wider the line the easier it is to lose concentration, especially on a bright screen. Added to this, the more parallel features like ads, links and buttons you see, the more unlikely you are to make your way to the end of the text.

Though the Internet arose for communication among academics, reading pages are now only a tiny fraction of it. Most web-pages are presentation pages: An object is presented through a quick interaction of texts, images and videos. The object may be a person, a product, a service, an opinion etc. The aim of the presentation is to persuade potential buyers, consumers and supporters. Focused reading plays a minor role.



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No experience on a screen can outbid reading on a vertical paper page. The enhanced experience a reading web-page can provide is one that minimises the obstacles.

The aesthetics of successful reading pages is based on a principle of minimal use. Html, CSS, Javascript etc. provide an ocean of resources which presentation pages enjoy to the full. For reading pages, this approach is fundamentally wrong. The ultimate aim is to use not as many, but indeed as few resources as possible. Think of paper: You can use it to write, to paint, to stick, to fold. There is no limit to creativity. But if you want to make a book out of it, you have to stick to something quite monotone. You’ll print some plain text on the surface and that’s it. If you do more, you’ll destroy the book. A reading web-page is as fragile as a book.

The first step is to verticalise the text displayed. The line should not exceed the width of a line on an average A5 book. The original web practice was to position the text on the left. The current practice prefers the centre.

The aim of a reading page is to direct the entire focus to the text. Everything else needs to be neutralised as background, and this will make at least half of the total screen width. The only option for text background is white. Everything else gets in the way.



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There is no need to be innovative with fonts and paragraphs. The most reliable choices are Times New Roman, Palatino and Arial, both for texts and for headlines. Fonts like Bodoni are very elegant on printed media but not ideal for screens. The longer the text, the more important it is to have a stable font. With the standard quality that most free fonts provide, it is unreasonable to pay a licence-fee for another font.

The serious font colour is black or dark grey. For headings, cold colours may be used, e.g. navy blue. Anything striking is no recommendation. Use a cold colour for links.

For a long text on a lap-top screen, a font-size of 12pt is too small. In html-terms, consider 1.2 or even 1.3em to spare the reader’s eyes. The smaller the font the more difficult to focus after a while. Bigger sizes always look more comfortable and promising.

The classical paragraph on a printed book is justified. This looks awkward on a smart-phone screen. The default alignment for smart-phone and tablet is to the left. Only bigger desktop screens can afford a justified form.

The size and screen of smart-phones is not conducive to focused reading. Though you should not neglect a responsive approach, a reading page should be build for desktop first.

Never be tempted to use a background image. It’s not a presentation page. The best colours are the least intrusive: white, grey (any shade) and black. The pros and cons of each choice are the following:



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1) White: The American approach, used by newspapers like the New York Times. With a white background, there is no intrusion to the eye, and this is an elegant choice for shorter texts. Yet overabundance makes the eye more vulnerable to blue lights. The longer the text, the worse the effect. For texts longer than 4000 words, the background becomes a tiring “white desert”.

2) Grey: The German approach, used by newspapers like Frankfurter Allgemeine and Die Zeit. With a grey background, there is a clear border between text and background, evoking the image of a sheet of paper. Yet this may be perceived as intrusive and looks awkward for texts shorter than 1000 words. Although the border evokes the form of paper, we have a roll rather than a page.

3) Black: The Formal approach. With a black background, the focus is emphatically directed to the text. This is advised for texts that are very long (more than 10.000 words) and require special concentration, e.g. a philosophical treatise or a long epic poem. Yet because of its strong focus, the formal approach may be perceived as too constrained and intimidating.

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Ancient readers had no issue with reading a page that never comes to an end. They had rolls instead of bound books. But we have been turning pages for centuries. This is something fundamental to our reading experience, and it has one major psychological implication: Our eyes need material breaks every now and again. An enhanced reading experience must reflect this. Any text longer than 2000 words should be divided into more or less equal sections. For longer texts, it is a good idea to number the sections. This creates a more familiar setting to the many eyes used to turning numbered book pages. It creates a sense of orientation within the text.

Sections should be separated by horizontal lines in a colour less bright than the font colour. This is not a place for fooling around: Let the font colour be black and the lines light-grey.

The size of sections, including the framing lines, should never be longer than a A5-page. Keep in mind that concentration requires more effort on a screen than on a piece of paper. Long unbroken passages are just off-putting.

Because the text will appear in sections, the paragraph margin may be set to 0. On desktop screens, a text-indent of max. 1em may be used. Paragraphs cannot be broken in the middle. You can only finish a section at the end of a paragraph.



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Most importantly, sections are neither chapters nor pages. Chapters separate content. Sections create regular breaks regardless of content. Moreover, a page is something you turn. Since the hypertext document as a whole is called web-page, the document should be referred as web-page and not simply page.

On a website, the closest experience to page-turning is clicking on the numbers of a pagination set. Although no page is materially turned, one web-page is closed and another is opened. When a text is divided into a set of web-pages, the whole body may be called a web-book.

Though a very widespread practice, displaying long texts as web-books is clumsy. You need to upload several html-documents on your server and give them different names. If you write many texts, pretty soon things will look quite full. Moreover, search engines may not direct readers to the first web-page of your text. After reading one web-page, readers may also decide not to click further and miss interesting contents.

The better approach is a codex: However lengthy, the entire text remains in the same html-document. The codex is divided into folia and the folia into sections. A folium is a major length unit for a given number of words, e.g. 10.000 or 15.000. While sections are separated through discreet lines, folia are separated through body-background padding, e.g. as single units of <"article">. Folia should be connected through internal pagination. Because they are much bigger than the pages of a book, they evoke the image of medieval manuscript codices with bigger vellum pages. This page is an example of a codex.



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The alternative to a codex is a proper roll. The entire text remains within the same folium, the only visual breaks are horizontal lines and in-folium features. Yet unless the visual breaks are very convincing, a proper roll is the most demanding form for readers used to page-turning. You need great aesthetic tact to succeed in it without frightening people with the size of the html-document. You may feel safer trying a codex, unless you want to take the challenge. If you succeed in a proper roll, you are definitely good. Previous versions of The Carolingian were released as proper rolls, like this one.

Web-books, codices and proper rolls – all forms can accommodate quotation in footnotes.1 Though sites like Wikipedia work with endnotes, it is a myth to believe this is the only option.2 Once you start using lines as visual breaks to create numbered sections, you can place small numbers of footnotes between sections, avoiding the convolution of never-ending endnotes.3 Ideally, a set of footnotes should not exceed one third of the size of the average section.

Intersectional footnotes have the advantage of being close to their source: It is no longer necessary to connect them through internal links, since minimal or no scrolling is needed to find a footnote.4

Codices with numbered sections and folia enable a methodical procedure for bibliographic reference.5 The Carolingian recommends the following standard:



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1. Both codices and proper rolls can accommodate footnotes.
2. Though sites like Wikipedia work with endnotes, it is a myth to believe this is the only option.
3. Once you start using lines as visual breaks to create numbered sections, you can place small numbers of footnotes between sections, avoiding the convolution of never-ending endnotes.
4. Intersectional footnotes have the advantage of being close to their source: It is no longer necessary to connect them through internal links, since minimal or no scrolling is needed to find a footnote.
5. Codices with numbered sections and folia enable a methodical procedure of bibliographic references. On this subject, researchers like Gregory Name have argued that “intersectional footnotes have the advantage of being close to their source: It is no longer necessary to connect them through internal links, since minimal or no scrolling is needed to find a footnote”. Name, Gregory: Aesthetics of Reading Pages (greg-ory.org/aesthetics.html), Jan. 2019, sec. 7.


The time of view should include the month and year in which the reference is being made. In the event of an update, the scientific duty is to indicate in a footnote when and what changes were made.6 The most serious practice is to include the previous version.

If the numbering of sections is continuous from the first to the last folium, it is not necessary to indicate the folium number. Should the numbering of sections be reset at any point, both the folium and the section must be indicated.

The following abbreviations may be used:

Whether or not the source web-page is a <"a"> link, it should always appear in brackets. The initials http(s):// can be omitted.

References can be quoted in the long or short form. The long form is used for the first occurrence, the short for the subsequent:



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6. Update: Feb. 2019. Previous version: “In the event of an update, just don’t bother – who on Earth will care?”




The ratio image:word requires some attention. In principle, no image should be used. Most readers will have other tabs open with a handful of presentation pages, all of them overcrowded with distraction. A reading page must provide a sober contrast to this. In a medium where concentration is by default a challenge, any trait of distraction should be avoided. Unless essential to the text, no picture is welcome. If unavoidable, a good picture:word ratio would be 1:10000.

Videos are even more distractive, nay text-defeating: The tendency of readers is to watch it and just leave with a feeling of “now I know what it’s all about.” Lots of videos and lots of texts don’t go well together. This is why most presentation pages have lots of videos and barely any text, while proper reading pages should have one video at the most, and only as a last-case scenario.












© The Carolingian 2019, culture, arts, aesthetics.
Flat 7, 18 High Street, Petersfield, GU32 3JL, United Kingdom
carolingian[at]use.startmail.com